The cerebellum contains two pursuit representations: in the paraflocculus/flocculus region and in the posterior vermis.
METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder".
Magnetic resonance imaging revealed new contrast enhancement in the dominant cystic lesion of the cerebellar vermis without any change in size and shape or evidence of edema.
Atrophy was greatest in the posterior cerebellar vermis (14.9% deficit) and correlated with depression severity (P=0.009, corrected), but not with dementia, alcohol/substance abuse, CD4+T-cell counts, or viral load.
The 3D-SSP score map showed decreased relative metabolism in the prefontal, cingulate and parietal regions in both hemispheres, and in the temporal region on the right, and increased relative metabolism in the occipital pole, vermis, cerebellum, dorsal-frontal, central convexity areas and basal ganglia in both hemispheres in patients compared with controls. Correlation coefficients of the anterior cingulate-primary sensorimotor, posterior cingulate-primary sensorimotor and occipital-media frontal in both hemispheres, of the frontal-primary sensorimotor, occipital-parahippocampal, primary visual-medial frontal and parahippocampal-amygdala in the right, and the frontal-vermis, parietal-thalamus, temporal-vermis, occipital-putamen, primary visual-putamen, thalamus-vermis and thalamus-cerebellum in the left were significantly different in patients compared with controls.
Working memory dysfunctions in schizophrenia correlated with grey matter in both cerebellar hemispheres and vermis.
It is characterized by partial agenesis of the vermis, resulting in communication between the fourth ventricle and the cisterna magna.
The tumor mass filling the fourth ventricle was removed via a transventricular telovelar route through the foramen of Magendie, preserving the vermis. Splitting of the cerebellar vermis is not necessary for removal of such tumors..
RESULTS: Statistical parametric mapping showed that viewing erotic film excerpts that induced sexual arousal was associated, in both groups, with activation of the middle prefrontal gyrus, bilateral temporal lobe and postcentral gyrus, thalamus, insula, vermis, left precuneus, occipital cortex, parietal cortex, and cerebellum.
Moreover, the alterations are more consistent in the anterior lobules of the vermis and intermediate cortex.
Conversely, the elements of the dorsal vermis pathway controlling saccade adaptation were relatively involved.
The activations found here include homologues to the pacemakers for gait initiation and speed regulation in the interfastigial cerebellum and bilateral midbrain tegmentum (cerebellar and mesencephalic locomotor regions), their descending target regions in the pontine reticular formation, and the rhythm generators in the cerebellar vermis and paravermal cerebellar cortex.
We report a case of histologically confirmed glioblastoma multiforme in the cerebellar vermis which occurred 9 years after treatment for gliomatosis cerebri. T1-weighted MR imaging after administration of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid detected enhanced lesions in the cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemisphere, and left posterior limb of the internal capsule 9 years after the initial treatment, although no abnormal findings were observed on initial and follow-up MR imaging. She underwent subtotal removal of the lesion in the cerebellar vermis. The patient received gamma knife irradiation for the remnant lesion in the cerebellar vermis, and the lesions in the cerebellar hemisphere and left posterior limb of the internal capsule, and chemotherapy with temozolomide. However, multiple enhanced lesions were detected in the cerebellar vermis 2 months after the start of the temozolomide chemotherapy, and she died 8 months later.
Joubert syndrome (JS) and related disorders are a group of autosomal-recessive conditions sharing the "molar tooth sign" on axial brain MRI, together with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, ataxia, and psychomotor delay.
RESULTS: VBM showed marked atrophy of the cerebellar vermis in the patients with h-ET with respect to healthy subjects (P(corrected) < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Atrophy of the cerebellar vermis detected in patients with h-ET strongly supports the evidence for the involvement of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of ET.
They reach the pontine burst generator for horizontal saccades via short-latency pathways and a longer pathway through the oculomotor vermis (OMV) of the cerebellum. We studied the nature of the possible error signal that might drive adaptation by examining the complex spike (CS) activity of vermis Purkinje (P-) cells in monkeys.
This is a relatively rare congenital neurological disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of cerebellar vermis, which transmits information from the body to the cerebellum, and is associated with respiratory dysfunction, abnormal eye movements, and developmental delay. The infant was found dead in bed and the immediate cause of death was determined as aspiration of vomit which may have been induced by a neurological disorder related to hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis.
At 8 days after the final treatment, intense pyknotic changes of the granule cells and the accumulation of activated microglia were observed throughout the cerebellar vermis.
The relationship between complex and simple spikes of Purkinje cells from vermis cerebelli of guinea pigs has been investigated. Three types of complex spikes in each Purkinje cell from vermis cerebelli of guinea pigs (n = 44) have been differentiated, which differ in duration.
Neuroradiological investigations revealed a hemorrhagic tumor mass in the cerebellar vermis which was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as mature teratoma.
The array of CRF stripes was reminiscent of zebrin II immunopositive Purkinje cell stripes in the anterior vermis and the hemispherical lobules. However, a direct comparison of the two distributions showed that the CRF-defined parasagittal stripes and transverse zones in the posterior vermis are different from those defined by the expression of zebrin II: in particular, CRF immunostaining revealed a transverse boundary between lobules VIb and VII and the presence of four CRF-immunopositive climbing fiber stripes in lobule VIII.
Diffusion-weighted MRI showed a small infarction in the white matter of the right PICA area near the vermis. The region responsible for CDE in these cases was located in the white matter of the PICA area near the vermis, although similar lesions in Cases 4 and 5 produced no CDE..
The flow was also lower in contralateral areas in the lateral cerebellum and vermis, thalamus, and posterior insula.
The cerebellar hemispheres and a small part of the posterior lobe vermis form the pontocerebellum, which receives inputs from the cerebral cortex via the pontine nuclei. The anterior lobe and most of the posterior lobe vermis make up the spinocerebellum, which receives afferents from the spinal cord.
Basilar pons, cerebral crus and cerebellum hemisphere were more susceptible than pontine tegmentum, vermis, midbrain tegmentum and tectum.
In children, transient cerebellar mutism after resection has lead to a diminished use of midline approaches and vermis transection, as well as reduced retraction of the cerebellar hemispheres.
The irradiated BALB/c showed a remarkable vermis deficit after birth, and histological analysis demonstrated that there were severe losses of the external germinal layer (EGL) and Purkinke cell layer.
Three dimensional reconstruction imaging revealed the complex morphological pattern of internal granular layer of the cerebellar hemispheres as well as of the vermis, in which bulges and branches were viewed stereoscopically as the smooth ridges rather than irregular or nodal.
RESULTS : As compared to controls, patients with SCA1 showed a significant (p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparison) symmetric loss of volume of the GM in the rostral cerebellar vermis and paramedian portions of the anterior cerebellar lobes.
Our results suggest that the cerebellar hemispheres as well as the dorsal vermis and fastigial nucleus may be involved in the control of saccadic accuracy and adaptation.
T1-weighted images are utilized to rate the atrophy of cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemispheres, pons and midbrain.
This suggests that early functional impairments are caused by cellular dysfunction and/or loss in the posterior cerebellar vermis and flocculus.
OBJECTIVES: Rhombencephalosynapsis is a rare, but increasingly recognized, brain malformation characterized by congenital fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres and absence of the vermis.
AIM: To establish a nomogram of the height of the cerebellar vermis at birth in small-for-gestational-age neonates. The height of the cerebellar vermis was measured by ultrasonography in the midsagittal plane. CONCLUSION: A nomogram of the height of the cerebellar vermis at birth against gestational age was established for use in small-for-gestational-age neonates..
In addition to the processing of vestibular signals for motor control, the cerebellar vermis is involved in vestibular processing of self-motion perception..
Previously, we performed an MRI study that revealed smaller volumes of the subregions of the cerebellar vermis in men and women with chronic schizophrenia. Patients with first-episode schizophrenia had reduced volumes of the anterior vermis and posterior superior vermis compared with healthy subjects. We confirmed that there was a volume reduction of the cerebellar vermis in drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Smaller volumes of the posterior superior vermis were associated with worse cognitive cluster scores in patients with first-episode schizophrenia..
Quantification of cresyl violet stained sections showed that Purkinje cells were preferentially lost in the cerebellar vermis and specifically in folia VI to IX (P<0.001-0.05).
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to construct reference ranges of the neonatal cerebellar vermis height with respect to the gestational age at birth. Sonographic measurements of the height of the cerebellar vermis in the mid-sagittal plane were performed within 24 h of birth by the same neonatal sonographer. Mean cerebellar vermis height adjusted for gestational age did not differ between males and females, the mean adjusted difference being 0.012 (95% CI, - 0.009 to 0.033) cm. Mean cerebellar vermis height (cm) against gestational age (weeks) was suitably modeled by a linear-cubic polynomial as - 1.784 + 0.137 x GA - 0.000019 x GA(3) (SD = - 0.147 + 0.008 x GA), where GA = gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Reference ranges for the height of the cerebellar vermis at birth with respect to gestational age at birth have been constructed in appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates..
Rhombencephalosynapsis (RES) is a rare malformation of the cerebellum of unknown etiology in which the vermis is hypoplastic and the two cerebellar hemispheres are fused. CONCLUSION: The clinical findings in two children presenting with infantile esotropia and RES may suggest a role of the vermis in ocular alignment.
For example, in mice lacking Apoer2 function immunostaining reveals ectopic Purkinje cells that are largely restricted to the zebrin II-immunonegative population of the anterior vermis.
cerebellum and vermis were atrophic in the MRI and PET scans of the first family.
In the vermis, there were the binding sites of SKF38393. In methamphetamine-sensitized rats the expression of the Aldolase mRNA positive bands move laterally in the rat vermis. Thus the reverse changes in gene expression pattern in the vermis may be involved in the mechanisms of the behavioral plasticity and suggests the new treatment of drug abuse..
Prior studies demonstrate structural abnormalities of cerebellar vermis in adult bipolar patients. The volumes of right, left and total cerebellum, vermis, and areas of vermal regions V1 (lobules I-V), V2 (lobules VI-VII), and V3 (lobules VIII-X) were measured. Analysis of covariance, with age, gender, and intra-cranial brain volume as covariates, revealed no significant differences in cerebellum or vermis measures between patients and controls; however, there was a trend to smaller vermis V2 areas in patients (p=0.06). The number of previous affective episodes and vermis area V2 were inversely correlated (partial correlation coefficient=-0.97, P=0.001) in the male bipolar patient group. Our results are preliminary, but consistent with the findings from studies in adult bipolar patients suggesting the involvement of structural changes in cerebellar vermis in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder..
It originates over the external granular layer that normally migrates from the vermis to the surface of the cerebellum hemispheres and from there to the deep portions of the internal granular layer.
In addition, a 681 bp gfaABC(1)(mC(1.1))D variant was generated that could limit expression of transgenes to astrocytes in the dorsal and caudal cortex, hippocampus and caudal vermis of the cerebellum..
We studied the effect of functional inactivation of cerebellar vermis after injection of tetrodotoxin on the formation, consolidation/storage, and retrieval of long-term memory on the model of acoustic startle reaction extinction and freezing behavior in adult rats. These data indicate the involvement of the vermis cortex into the mechanisms of long-term memory of various forms of defense behavior..
Spry2 misexpression also affects development of the vermis, the part of the cerebellum that spans the midline. We found that, whereas misexpression of Spry2 alone caused loss of the anterior vermis, reducing FGF signaling further, by decreasing Fgf8 gene dose, resulted in loss of the entire vermis. Our data suggest that cell death is not responsible for vermis loss, but rather that it fails to develop because reducing FGF signaling perturbs the balance between vermis and roof plate development in rhombomere 1.
The conventional approach to the fourth ventricle is by splitting the vermis on the suboccipital surface of the cerebellum. By a unilateral transcerebellomedullary fissure approach, it is possible to provide sufficient operative space from cerebral aqueduct to obex without splitting the vermis.
STSA depends on the integrity of the cerebellar vermis. Whereas patients with intact vermis did not differ from controls, those with vermal pathology lacked outward adaptation: SD remained constant, as did SA and PV.
Two patients presented with vermis dominant cerebellar cortical lesions, but the other two patients showed hemispheric dominant pathological changes. Two of the three cases had a prominent lesion in the dorsal part of the inferior olive and the cerebellar cortical lesion disclosed the vermis dominance, but the other patient, showing prominent neuronal loss in the ventral olivary nucleus, had a cerebellar hemisphere dominant lesion. Therefore, it is obvious that there are two types of cerebellar cortex lesions in idiopathic LCCA; one is vermis dominant and the other is cerebellar hemispheric dominant.
The regions of augmented rCBF responses were found in the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellar vermis.
Dopamine transporters are predominantly expressed in the striatum, but also in the cerebellar vermis. RESULTS: DAT1 genotype affected activation in the striatum and cerebellar vermis. The genotype interacted with familial risk of ADHD in the striatum but not the vermis.
Results demonstrated that the volumes of both hemispheres and the vermis were not statistically significantly different between groups. Hemisphere asymmetry moderately correlated with rapid naming errors, and the anterior vermis volume moderately correlated with phonological awareness. Although children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder did not differ in cerebellar morphologic structure, the anterior vermis volume moderately correlated with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, while the right hemisphere volume moderately correlated with inattention and hyperactivity.
Rhombencephalosynapsis is a rare, sporadic, posterior fossa malformation characterized by agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, dorsal fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres, and fusion of the dentate nuclei and superior cerebellar peduncles.
Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated striated and laminar pattern lesions in the right cerebellar hemisphere and vermis. She underwent subtotal removal of the vermis compressing the brainstem, but the cerebellar hemisphere appeared normal and was preserved.
Dense fibre-like immunofluorescence was observed in the molecular layer of the vestibular cerebellum (paraflocculus and lobes IX and X of the vermis). There was little or no immunofluorescence in any other region of the cerebellum (vermis or hemispheres). The immunofluorescence in lobes IX and X of the vermis showed a parasagittal banding pattern, with one medial and two lateral bands.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed blood-oxygen-level-dependent correlates of these visual context effects on gravitational motion processing in the vestibular nuclei and posterior cerebellar vermis.
The inferior portions of the cerebellum and vermis were absent as evidenced by MRI and CT scans.
In experiments on 5 age groups of anesthetized guinea pigs (from newborns to 4 weeks of postnatal ontogenesis), activity of cerebellum Purkinje cells (PC) (IV-VII lobules of cerebellar vermis) was studied in the single track of microelectrode passing through cell layers.
Comparison with the locomotion centers in the cat showed that these activations include the pacemakers for gait initiation and speed regulation in the interfastigial cerebellum and bilateral midbrain tegmentum (cerebellar and mesencephalic locomotor regions), their descending target regions in the pontine reticular formation, and the rhythm generators in the cerebellar vermis and paravermal cortex.
rCBF in four regions of interest (amygdala, vermis of the cerebellum, anterior cingulated cortex and thalamus) was compared with heroin versus placebo.
Gabrb3(-/-) mice also displayed significant hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis compared to gabrb3(+/+) mice.
Exercised compared to nonexercised rats demonstrated increased influence of the cerebellar-thalamic-cortical (CbTC) circuit, with relative increases in perfusion in deep cerebellar nuclei (medial, interposed, lateral), thalamus (ventrolateral, midline, intralaminar), and paravermis, but with decreases in the vermis. Following ET, the new dynamic equilibrium of the brain is characterized by increases in the efficiency of neural processing (sensorimotor cortex, striatum, vermis) and an increased influence of the CbTC circuit.
These mice showed significant elongation of the cerebellar antero-posterior axis (p<0.001), determined by increased length of rostral folia of the vermis (lobule II-V, p<0.0001; lobule VI, p<0.001).
Smooth pursuit evoked activation in the frontal eye fields (FEF), the supplementary eye fields (SEF), the parietal eye fields (PEF), the motion-sensitive area (MT/V5), and in lobules and vermis VI of the cerebellum (oculomotor areas).
The vermis area of the cerebellum was removed following behavioral experiments, cut into sagittal sections, and analyzed with Fos immunohistochemistry to determine neuronal activation. At the mid-vermis region (sections from the midline to 0.1 mm laterally), non-contact stimulation significantly increased the activity of granule neurons. In contrast to the mid-vermis region, sections farthest from the midline (0.1 to 0.9 mm laterally) revealed that only lobule 7 expressed activated neurons. These data suggest that a well-delineated group of granule neurons have a sexual biphasic response at the cerebellar vermis, and that Fos in them is under an active degradation mechanism.
We have observed 20 children with MRI-identified agenesis of the cerebellar vermis and behavioral abnormalities; children were aged 3-15 (mean 7.05) years and there were 12 males and eight females.
Malformations affecting the cerebellar vermis induce affective and social disorders and evolve towards more unfavourable pictures often associated with an autistic symptomatology.
Recent evidence also suggests that age-related reductions in the posterior vermis are associated with age-related decline in frontal lobe cognitive functions, but these studies did not consider concomitant age-related atrophy of the prefrontal lobes.
The principal neuropathology comprises atrophy of the upper vermis and the loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum.
RESULTS: Small areas of localized gray matter atrophy were detected in the lateral cerebellar hemispheres (lobule VI) and ocular motor vermis of patients with idiopathic DBN, but not in the flocculus and paraflocculus.
Documentation of the cerebellum, vermis, and cisterna magna are required for posterior fossa evaluation in any American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine-certified practice.
The DLPN receives inputs from the cortical SP system and delivers eye and visual motion information to the dorsal/ventral paraflocculus and vermis of the cerebellum.
A central aspect of the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome is the dysregulation of affect that occurs when lesions involve the 'limbic cerebellum' (vermis and fastigial nucleus).
A study about Dandy Walker syndrome states a relationship of abnormalities in vermis lobulation with developmental problems. Further lobulation or volume abnormalities of the cerebellum and/or vermis can be detected in disorders as fragile X syndrome, Downs's syndrome or William's syndrome. Acquired cerebellar or vermis atrophy was found in groups of children with developmental problems such as prenatal alcohol exposure or extreme prematurity.
The isthmus was thinned out, with widened interpeduncular cistern and hypoplastic vermis.
We characterized pursuit signals in Purkinje (P) cells in the cerebellar dorsal vermis and their discharge during vergence pursuit. These results suggest involvement of the dorsal vermis in conversion of 3D-pursuit signals and in convergence eye movements..
Using patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques in cerebellar vermis parasagittal slices, we found that 25 mM ethanol increases the tonic current amplitude, tonic current noise, and spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) frequency to a similar extent in alpha(6)-100R/100R and alpha(6)-100Q/100Q CGNs.
Secondary regions were the central cerebellar white matter, cerebellar vermis, thalamus, and basal ganglia.
Cerebral ischemia and white matter changes, moyamoya phenomena and absence of a cerebellar hemisphere and partial absence of the cerebellar vermis have been described in patients with severe SIOD. We present three SIOD patients with atrophy of the caudal parts of the cerebellar vermis (posterior lobule) and of the cerebellar hemispheres.
We found a mass in the cerebellar vermis abutting the floor of the fourth ventricle, which upon histological examination after surgery proved to be an ependymoma.
Typical findings are: short cerebellar folia with poor branching ("hypoplasia"), relative sparing of the vermis, sharply demarcated areas of full thickness loss of cerebellar cortex probably resulting from regression at an early stage of development, segmental loss of dentate nuclei with preserved islands and reactive changes, segmental loss in the inferior olivary nucleus with reactive changes, loss of ventral pontine nuclei with near absence of transverse pontine fibers and sparing of spinal anterior horn cells.
RESULTS: In patients with FRDA, VBM showed a symmetrical volume loss in dorsal medulla, infero-medial portions of the cerebellar hemispheres, the rostral vermis and in the dentate region.
Three patients presented with cerebellar hypoplasia involving the vermis and the hemispheres, while the remaining 2 had a malformation affecting only the cerebellar hemispheres. RESULTS: In the patients with cerebellar vermis malformation, language and social communicative skills were affected to a variable extent: 1 patient did not present with social disturbances during development.
This report is a neuropathological description of posterior cerebellar vermis agenesis/hypoplasia at midgestation. Neuropathological findings were characterized macroscopically by hypoplasia of the posterior vermis with normal cerebellar hemispheres and brainstem; hypoplasia of the posterior vermian lobules 6 to 10, mildly cystic dilatation of the ventricular cavity, and a flat profile of the roof of the fourth ventricle also were demonstrated.
The patient had cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, ocular abnormalities (Leber congenital amaurosis with retinal dystrophy, abnormal eye movements), developmental delay, growth deficiency, severe renal failure, and severe anemia.
Numerous neuronal heterotopias associated with ectopic ependymal cavities were observed in the vermis in one case.
Although the mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced changes in the cerebellar vermis are poorly understood, observations in the alcoholic vermis are thought to be consequential to common alcohol-related factors, particularly thiamine deficiency. Methods: In the present study, we used a proteomics-based approach to compare protein expression profiles of the cerebellar vermis from human alcoholic individuals (both neurologically uncomplicated and alcoholic individuals complicated with liver cirrhosis) and healthy control brains. Results: Like the CC study, several liver cirrhosis-specific proteins were identified in the vermis, perhaps indicating the effects of liver dysfunction in this brain region. Conclusions: These results suggest that clinically and pathologically uncomplicated alcoholic cases may not in fact be "uncomplicated," as at the proteome level we seem to be isolating the confounding effects of nutritional deficiencies and liver dysfunction and perhaps their role in alcohol-related vermis damage. Together, these results indicate that the alcohol-related pathology of the vermis is more multifactorial than other brain regions examined previously (prefrontal region and CC splenium)..
Using a rat model of cerebellar injury, we assessed the involvement of two structures often damaged during resection (vermis and interpositus nuclei) on habits development. Here we showed that, in contrast to sham or vermis lesioned rats, discrete lesions to interpositus nuclei prevented rats from developing habits with overtraining, without motor difficulties, nor alteration of the instrumental task acquisition.
OAZ-deficient mice are ataxic, attributed to the reduction of the cerebellar vermis and some regions of the hemispheres.
In particular, relative cerebellar vermis activation seems to be frequently encountered. In the trauma group, the visualization of the cerebellar vermis was readily appreciable as a consistent majority of cases. In particular, the mean vermis/cerebellum ratio (calculated by appropriate ROI positioning) was 1.26 +/- 0.17 SD (range 0.92-1.82); in the control group the same parameters showed much less dispersion: average 0.92 +/- 0.06, range 0.80-1.10 (P < 0.005). In conclusion, a hypermetabolic cerebellar vermis is a common finding in a damaged brain, regardless of the nature of the trauma (probably due to the relative preservation compared with other structures of alternative metabolic pathways), and seems to be the hallmark of the injured brain..
Furthermore DTI shows transverse white matter fiber that cross between the two cerebellar hemispheres at the level of the vermis.
Schizophrenia patients had smaller volumes of the posterior superior vermis, while alcohol-dependent patients had smaller volumes of both the anterior and the posterior superior vermis compared with controls. The results provide indications for differential morphological abnormalities of the cerebellar vermis in patients with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence..
Histograms of ADCs were generated for all pixels in the infratentorial compartment and manually segmented areas corresponding to brainstem, vermis, and cerebellar hemispheres.
Here we show that in adult rats amygdala or cerebellar vermis blockade causes amnesia when performed immediately, but not 1 h, after the recall of fear memories.
However, activation in the superior vermis was significantly greater when the movements were discrete compared to when the movements were continuous.
In autopsy cases of vascular dementia, the application of silver impregnation technique and electron microscopy revealed a substantial decrease of the number of the climbing fibres in the cortex of the vermis, the flocculus and the cerebellar hemispheres.
Concomitantly, there was an age-related increase of apoptosis in the medial neocerebellum and the vermis as revealed by TUNEL, with changes being significant in the SAMP(8) strain.
With a new analysis of these ejaculation data, we now demonstrate ejaculation-related activations in the deep cerebellar nuclei (dentate nucleus), anterior vermis, pons, and ventrolateral thalamus, and, most importantly, ejaculation-related deactivations throughout the prefrontal cortex.
The authors compared the volumes of each lobe of the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis in children with ADHD and comparison subjects and used a new regional cerebellar volume measurement to characterize the developmental trajectory of these differences. RESULTS: In the ADHD groups, a nonprogressive loss of volume was observed in the superior cerebellar vermis; the volume loss persisted regardless of clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased volume of the superior cerebellar vermis appears to represent an important substrate of the fixed, nonprogressive anatomical changes that underlie ADHD.
Vertebral angiogram revealed a saccular aneurysm arising from the tonsillomedullary segment of the left PICA, and communicating artery with supplying a territory of contralateral vermis as an anastmotic vessel.
Most of the evidence so far has concentrated on the vermis and flocculi as the cerebellar agents of oculomotor control.
The clinical investigation revealed low plasma cholesterol and hypoplasia of the vermis in MRI.
The brain-MRI was normal; there was no atrophy in cerebellum and vermis.
However, the vermis was relatively spared and the basis pontis maintained its oval shape.
Vertebral angiogram revealed a saccular aneurysm arising from the tonsillomedullary segment of the left PICA, and communicating artery with supplying a territory of contralateral vermis as an anastmotic vessel.
Purkinje cells in the vermis region revealed abnormally shaped nuclei. A stereologic analysis showed that the mean total number of Purkinje cells within the vermis was statistically significantly smaller in the BCCAO animals than in the control animals (d = 11.8%; P < 0.0001). BCCAO had no significant effect on the mean volumes of the molecular layer, granule cell layer and white matter in the vermis or the entire cerebellum.
Brain MRI showed cerebellar atrophy, especially in the vermis, in both patients.
Magnetic resonance imaging studies showed marked atrophy in the cerebellar hemisphere and vermis, and a sural nerve biopsy revealed a marked reduction in the number of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers.
Additional studies in vivo show that while Pcp-2(L7) expression is dependent on RORalpha throughout the cerebellum, this dependence is greatest in the intermediate region between the vermis and far lateral hemispheres.
RESULTS: All of the A-T patients showed marked cerebellar atrophy of the vermis and hemispheres.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We report abnormal high T2 signal intensity in the anterior lobe of the cerebellar vermis that we believe was the result of profound hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in the perinatal period in term infants. The presence or absence of high T2 signal intensity in the vermis and other sites was correlated with the extent of damage in typically affected regions. RESULTS: Eighteen of 30 patients had high T2 signal intensity in the vermis. CONCLUSIONS: High T2 signal intensity in the anterior lobe of the vermis probably represents gliosis secondary to hypoxia/ischemia and is related to the severity of damage in the term infant..
She presented short stature, right blepharoptosis and telecanthus on physical examination; pancytopenia, liver dysfunction and renal failure on laboratory studies agenesis of cerebellar vermis on magnetic resonance imaging reduced amplitude of electroretinographic response, and retinal pigmentary changes under funduscopy. Arima syndrome, also known as cerebro-oculo-hepato-renal syndrome, is a disorder characterized by cerebellar vermis aplasia and other clinical features such as profound psychomotor retardation, severe visual impairment, characteristic facial appearance with blepharoptosis, hepatic fibrosis and progressive renal insufficiency.
RESULTS: The septa are typically seen inferoposterior to the cerebellar vermis, usually straight and parallel, arising at the cerebellovermian angle and coursing posteriorly to the occipital bone. The cisterna magna septa become contiguous with the roof of the fourth ventricle inferior to the cerebellar vermis. Deviation from their normal appearances should prompt a closer assessment for associated abnormalities of the cerebellum, vermis, and brain stem by additional imaging in orthogonal planes with either sonography or magnetic resonance imaging..
Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis and inferior cerebellar peduncles, abnormal superior cerebellar peduncles with deepening of the interpeduncular fossa, and enlargement of the fourth ventricle.
Automatically detected global brain volume gain amounted to nearly two per cent on average and was spatially significant around the superior vermis, perimesencephalic, periventricular and frontal brain edges.
RESULTS: A-T patients were distinguished from controls by the profound loss of all metabolites in the cerebellar vermis (NAA, p < 0.01; Cr and Cho, p < 0.05) and a trend for decreased metabolites within the cerebellar hemispheres.
OBJECTIVE: The widely applied transcerebellar diameter (TCD) obtained at axial cranial imaging, measures the distance between the lateral aspects of the cerebellum and incorporates the width of the cerebellar vermis. Our objective was to create reference ranges of axial fetal cerebellar hemisphere circumference (CHC) and area (CHA), independent of the cerebellar vermis, throughout gestation. CONCLUSION: Nomograms of axial fetal cerebellar hemisphere circumference and area throughout gestation, independent of the cerebellar vermis, have been provided..
Regression analyses revealed no effects of spinal lesion level, presence of nystagmus, or cerebellar vermis dysmorphology on saccadic adaptation.
Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar vermis hypoplasia associated with hypotonia, developmental delay, abnormal respiratory patterns, and abnormal eye movements.
The growth of Pc dendrites was early altered in lobules VI-VIII of cerebellum vermis.
The KCC2 was first detected within the Purkinje cells in the Purkinje cell layer of the hemisphere at embryonic day 15 (E15) and the vermis at E17, but the ventricular and intermediate zones were negative.
Several functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the cerebellar vermis in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but there have been no structural neuroimaging studies of this brain structure in PTSD. We utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with manual tracing to quantify the volumes of three divisions of the mid-sagittal vermis, and their total, within an identical, co-twin control design that employed Vietnam veterans discordant for combat exposure in Vietnam. Each structure's volume was significantly correlated between twins, indicating a partial familial determination: for anterior superior vermis, r=0.73; for posterior superior vermis, r=0.47; for inferior posterior vermis, r=0.51; and for total vermis, r=0.57. There were no significant differences between the PTSD and non-PTSD veterans for any vermis volume, and no significant main effects or interactions when their non-combat-exposed co-twins were added to the analyses. Thus, the results do not support the structural abnormality of cerebellar vermis in combat-related PTSD..
Brain microinjection studies have revealed that the positive-linked receptors are located in eight to nine brain regions spanning the neuraxis including the secondary motor cortex, piriform cortex, nucleus accumbens, preoptic area, lateral hypothalamic area, vermis cerebellum, locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe and possibly the C1 nucleus of the ventrolateral medulla, whereas the stress-linked receptors are present in at least three areas including the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, central nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
Comparisons between the patterns of brain activation associated with the involuntary post-effects and those accompanying voluntary contraction showed that cerebellar vermis was activated during the post-effect periods whereas the supplementary motor area was activated only during the induction periods.
Postmortem examination confirmed the prenatal findings and revealed additional anomalies, such as hypoplastic cerebellum with abnormal gyration of the vermis.
Using the fluid percussion injury (FPI) device applied unilaterally in the forebrain, evoked compound action potential (CAP) recordings from cerebellar white matter of Sprague-Dawley rats indicated a spatial and temporal pattern of electrophysiological deficits throughout the cerebellar vermis.
Clinical and radiological features included poor contact, cleft palate, facial dysmorphic features with frontal bossing, down-slanting and small palpebral fissures, inferior epicanthic folds, low-set and malformed ears, flat nose, retrognathism and short neck, minor limb anomalies, polymicrogyria that appear more severe in the perisylvian regions and cerebellar vermis hypoplasia.
Similarly, there was a distinctive pattern of Purkinje cell loss and microglial activation in the cerebellar vermis that varied with injury severity.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed no abnormality in the orbital structures, although hypoplasia of cerebellum and vermis was visualized.
In the present study, electrophysiological responses were recorded to single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the vermis in healthy human volunteers. Increased theta activity was observed after single-pulse vermis TMS as compared to sham and occipital TMS.
The brain was edematous and, in the cerebellum, the vermis showed a loss of granule and Purkinje cells.
We found reduction of grey matter in the pons as well as in the vermis in SCA3 as compared to control subjects. In SCA6 significant grey matter loss was found in hemispheric lobules bilaterally as well as in the vermis.
Archicerebellar (flocculo-nodular lobe) and paleocerebellar (vermis) structures develop first, whereas neocerebellum (cerebellar hemispheres) develop slowly and largely after birth..
Our own study of children with agenesis of the vermis cerebelli detected by MRI and behavioral disturbances included 20 children aged 3-15 years (mean age 7,05 years, 12 male, 8 female).
The cerebellar findings included destruction of major portions of the cerebellum (usually the inferior vermis and hemispheres) (n = 23) and focal or unilateral loss of cerebellar tissue (n = 4).
The principal neuropathology comprises atrophy of the upper vermis and the loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum.
The present study examined the long-term effects of early nicotine exposure on the number of pyramidal and granule cells in the hippocampus, and Purkinje cells in the cerebellar vermis.
RT-PCR data show low levels of CRF-R2alpha in the vermis and hemisphere of the cerebellum.
Homozygous Zfp423 null mice are runted and ataxic, the cerebellum is underdeveloped, and the vermis is severely reduced.
We investigated the relationship between structural volumes of the cerebellum hemispheres, vermis, brainstem, and clinical variables in pediatric maltreatment-related PTSD.
As a result, we found that patients with ADHD had decreased ALFF in the right inferior frontal cortex, left sensorimotor cortex, and bilateral cerebellum and the vermis as well as increased ALFF in the right anterior cingulated cortex, left sensorimotor cortex, and bilateral brainstem.
mansoni ova involved by granulomatous inflammation in necrotic-exudative phase, located mainly in the internal, granular layer of the cerebellum, creating a pseudotumor in the cerebellar vermis and a recent hemorrhage in the trunk.
Equipped with this paradigm, we asked whether Purkinje cells (P-cells) in the vermis of the oculomotor cerebellum, lobules VIc and VII, changed their complex spike (CS) discharge during the behavioral adaptation of horizontal saccades. These data suggest that the CS activity of P-cells in the oculomotor vermis signals the direction but not the magnitude of eye-position error during saccade adaptation.
Measurements of the posterior fossa showed hypoplastic cerebellar vermis (8 of 17), the cerebellum at lower normality limits (5 of 17), and signs of cerebellar hypoplasia (3 of 7).
We found that both STN DBS and levodopa therapy were associated with significant (P < 0.001) metabolic reductions in the putamen/globus pallidus, sensorimotor cortex and cerebellar vermis, as well as increases in the precuneus (BA 7).
Both effects are depressed by functional inactivation of the cerebellar anterior vermis, which also decreases the gain of VSRs. In conclusion, the results of this study show that somatosensory signals from the forelimb: i) modulate the activity of a sizeable proportion of neurons located within the cerebellar anterior vermis and ii) interact widely with labyrinthine and neck signals at this level.
A brain MRI showed acute infarction selectively involving the centralis of the rostral vermis.
Even after the symptoms resolved, the rCMRGlu in the hypertrophic olive increased persistently, whereas that in the inferior cerebellar vermis contralateral to the hypertrophic olive decreased. The inferior cerebellar vermis, belonging to the vestibulocerebellar system, may be associated with the generation of symptomatic ocular myoclonus..
Using 3D-based volumetry, we confirmed that in MSA-C patients, the brainstem including medulla and pons, vermis and cerebellar hemispheres, caudate nucleus and putamen showed significant atrophy compared with controls. Atrophy rates in patients with MSA were significantly different from controls for putamen (-11.4% +/- 2.6%/year), vermis (-12.3% +/- 2.9%/year), and cerebellar hemispheres (-6.6% +/- 1.1%/year).
At the end of treatment, tissues from the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellar vermis were viewed and photographed with the electron microscope.
Group analysis of SPECT showed that CAB activated (increased rCBF) vermis and cerebellar hemispheres in first two paired scans and anterior cingulate and vermis on the final pair. Increased rCBF at rest occurred in cerebellar hemispheres, vermis, and right dorsomedial frontal cortex. These preliminary observations suggest that there may be a role of the hindbrain (vermis and cerebellum) with HANDLE treatment of chronic TBI..
Since knowledge of the parallel and climbing fiber-Purkinje cell system is important in order to determine the architectural basis of cerebellar function, we used immunofluorescence for vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1 and VGluT2) to evaluate the trend of synaptogenesis of parallel and climbing fibers on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum vermis after a single injection of cisplatin to 10-day-old rats, i.e., during a crucial period of cerebellar development. The changes were restricted to the neocerebellar vermis and were likely dependent on the different timing of lobule formation.
In the cerebellum, all cerebellar folia of both hemispheres and the vermis were affected.
The number of Purkinje cells (PCs) in the Ebf2 null is markedly decreased, resulting in a small cerebellum with notable foliation defects, particularly in the anterior vermis.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The multilayered structure of rat neocerebellum cortex (VI-VIII lobules of the vermis) during postnatal development undergoes rearrangements, which in turn are affected by treatment with the anti-tumoral drug cisplatin. Autofluorescence signal was analyzed in vivo at the surface of intact lobules of cerebellum vermis by means of fiber optic spectrofluorometry, or on tissue sections by means of microspectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging.
When subtracting the activation values of men from those of women, suprathreshold positive signal changes were detected in the right posterior cingulate, the left putamen and the left cerebellum during positive mood induction, and in bilateral superior temporal gyri and cerebellar vermis during negative mood induction.
RESULTS: The vermis was severely hypoplastic or absent in rhombencephalosynapsis and Joubert syndrome.
The posterior region of the cerebellar vermis displayed significant PN loss (p = 0.001) at 1 day postinjury, whereas the gyrus of the horizontal fissure and gyrus of lobules III and IV exhibited delayed PN loss at higher levels of injury severity.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed cerebellar infarction restricted to the bilateral inferior vermis. The inferior vermis may participate in maintaining the center of gravity while standing..
Structural imaging reveal a hypoplasia or agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, enlargement of the fourth ventricle with a posterior fossa cyst. Macroscopic brain examination revealed hypoplasia of both cerebellar hemispheres and posterior part of the vermis, as well as dilatation of the fourth ventricle without hydrocephalus.
For both OKN directions, the cerebellar activation was localized in the oculomotor vermis (declive VI, folium and tuber VIIA/B, in part pyramis VIIIA), and the flocculus bilaterally as well as widespread in the cerebellar hemispheres.
Patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly increased cerebellar vermis white-matter volume compared with controls. Increased vermis white-matter volume in patients was associated with poor verbal fluency performance. We concluded that increased white-matter in the cerebellar vermis, possibly suggesting anomalous connectivity, may be associated with verbal executive dysfunction in men with chronic schizophrenia..
In ACD cases, loss of Purkinje cells, narrowing of the width of the molecular layer, and tissue rarefaction in the granular layer were observed in the anterior and superior portions of the vermis of the cerebellum.
The aim of this study was to describe our experience with sagittal-plane prenatal ultrasound in the diagnosis of rotation of the vermis in cases of suspected enlarged cisterna magna on routine antenatal imaging, and to describe the follow-up of these patients. METHODS: Seven women, who were referred to our ultrasound unit for evaluation of an enlarged fetal cisterna magna and suspected agenesis of the vermis on axial-plane imaging, underwent further multiplanar studies of the posterior fossa and measurements of the vermis. In the mid-sagittal plane, the vermis was clearly delineated, with posterosuperior rotation. vermis size was within normal limits for gestational age in all cases. CONCLUSION: The finding of an enlarged cisterna magna on standard- (axial-)plane ultrasound should be evaluated further in the sagittal plane to determine whether the cause is rotation of a normal vermis.
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether, by applying a predefined set of morphometric measurements to the posterior fossa and the cerebellar vermis, it is possible to detect and quantify the following parameters, which represent key features of abnormalities of the vermis and posterior fossa: 1) upward rotation of the vermis; 2) upward displacement of the tentorium; 3) underdevelopment of the vermis. Upward rotation of the vermis was demonstrated both by the tentorovermian and the clivovermian angles in fetuses with Dandy-Walker variant (P < 0.001), while in those with Dandy-Walker malformation the difference was not statistically significant, probably due to the small number of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Using 3D ultrasound, we have demonstrated in the fetus the key elements characterizing most anomalies of the posterior fossa, namely the upward displacement of the tentorium, the counterclockwise rotation and the significant hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. In addition, our observations in a small number of cases indicate that there is a good correlation between MRI- and 3D ultrasound-derived morphometric measurements of the vermis..
2D and 3D median planes were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by measuring the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis. Measurements of the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis were highly correlated, with mean variations of 6% and 14%, respectively.
In treated animals, low power examination revealed loss of CB-28 and MAP-2 expression in degenerating neurons arranged in parasagittal stripes within the vermis.
The present study suggests that the syndrome associating MTS and dysplasia of the superior vermis of the cerebellum is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous entity and that Jouberin (AHI1) mutations account for a marginal fraction of patients..
We present two siblings from unrelated parents presenting with intrauterine growth retardation, a congenital heart defect, postaxial polydactyly, a brain malformation (ectopic neuropituitary gland associated with a hypoplastic adenopituitary in one of them, and a hypoplastic cerebellum and vermis in the other), abnormal hair with temporal balding, a striking facial dysmorphism and, at least in the child who survived, postnatal growth retardation and severe developmental delay.
Strong negative correlations emerged between psychoticism and perfusion in the basal ganglia and thalamus and between harm avoidance and perfusion in the cerebellar vermis, cuneus and inferior frontal gyrus.
This paper places attention on the discrepancies existing in the literature on the ploidy of Purkinje neurons and focuses on the special case of partial replication of their genome and on the unequal frequency of polyploid Purkinje neurons in the cerebellar cortex of the lobes and the vermis.
The cerebellum was exposed by craniotomy, and 0.3 microl of 10% solution of Dextran Tetramethyl Rhodamine Biotin (Micro Ruby: or MR) in PBS was injected into many regions of the anterior vermis (lobule I, II) and the posterior vermis (lobule VI, VII, IX, X), the flocculus, the paraflocculus and the deep cerebellar nuclei.
Fetal brain MRI confirmed these features and disclosed additional morphological anomalies: Agenesis of the vermis, complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, pachygyria of the left hemisphere.
Neuropathological abnormalities included dysplastic, C-shaped inferior olivary nuclei, absent or immature dentate nuclei, and cell paucity more marked for the cerebellar vermis than the hemispheres.
RESULTS: Significant brain activation during detrusor overactivity was found in the periaqueductal gray, supplementary motor area, cerebellar vermis, insula, putamen and thalamus.
Lesions of the oculomotor vermis, lobules VIc and VII, and inactivation of the caudal fastigial nucleus, the cerebellar output nucleus to which it projects, produce saccade dysmetria but have little effect on saccade peak velocity and duration.
In all four cases we have seen on T2-weighted images large, irregular hyperintense lesions in the brainstem, especially in the pons, midbrain and medulla, but also in one case in the thalamus and vermis of the cerebellum.
The OTX2-positive tumors of this series were preferentially localized in the vermis of the cerebellum, whereas OTX2-negative tumors more frequently occurred in the hemispheres of the cerebellum.
Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have smaller cerebellar volumes, particularly in the posterior-inferior cerebellar vermis (lobules VIII-X). Functional activation of the human cerebellar vermis following stimulant administration has also been repeatedly demonstrated. There is no well-characterized dopaminergic pathway that projects to the posterior-inferior cerebellar vermis, although the dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) have been localized in the posterior-inferior vermis in the non-human primate by immunohistochemistry. We hypothesized that DA neurotransmission may occur in localized "hot spots" in the cerebellar vermis, and if so, that differences in such neurotransmission might be relevant to the pathophysiology of ADHD. In addition, in vivo microdialysis studies were performed in the rat posterior-inferior cerebellar vermis in anesthetized animals. These studies refute the hypothesis that DA neurotransmission normally occurs in the rat cerebellar vermis, but highlight that vermal DA is released by d-amphetamine.
In 1994 there was a single report of a girl with TAR syndrome and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis and corpus callosum and in 2003 another case of TAR syndrome with cerebellar dysgenesis has been reported. Here we report of a girl with TAR syndrome, severe mental retardation, agenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis and horseshoe kidney.
A wavelet scaling exponent (alpha) was used to characterize signals from 0.015625 to 0.5Hz in cerebellar lobules VIII to X of the vermis (posterior inferior vermis; PIV), a region coordinating balance, eye tracking, locomotion, and vascular tone, and a possible site of pathology in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Ten had hypoplasia of the vermis, 21 had hypoplasia of the vermis and cerebellar hemispheres, 2 had pontocerebellar hypoplasia, and 18 had progressive cerebellar atrophy.
We quantified the presumed reduction in vermis size on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Midsagittal surface areas occupied by the intracranial fossa, posterior fossa, vermis, and its lobules were measured. CONCLUSIONS: Mean posterior fossa area was significantly smaller (P<0.003), although mean vermis area was significantly larger (P<0.0001), in participants with CII than in control participants. This expansion involved vermis lobules I-V and VI-VII areas (P<0.0001). The midsagittal vermis was expanded and not reduced in size in participants with CII.
MRI analysis demonstrated hypoplasia of the cerebellum and the cerebellar vermis as well as a small nucleus dentatus and a thin corpus callosum but no other malformations.
Subcortical activations were in the left globus pallidus, the vermis and bilaterally in the cerebellar hemispheres (lobule VI) and the thalamus.
We recorded CS from PC of the posterior vermis before, during, and after saccadic adaptation.
Before withdrawal, the bilateral thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus, insula/ventral striatum and right inferior parietal lobule were hypometabolic, while the cerebellar vermis was hypermetabolic.
Brain magnetic resonance (MR) images showed acute infarctions involving the right dorsolateral medulla, bilateral cerebellar vermis and paramedian cerebellar hemispheres.
We have studied the temporal and spatial characteristics of the development of unipolar brush cells (UBCs) in the human cerebellar vermis. In order to visualize unipolar brush cells, calretinin-immunocytochemistry was performed on formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of the cerebellar vermis. Our results show that calretinin-immunoreactive unipolar brush cells are not yet present in the cerebellar vermis at the 28th gestational week.
This cortical network is the starting point of a set of parallel cerebrofugal projections that use different parts of the dorsal pontine nuclei and the neighboring rostral nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis as intermediate stations to feed two areas of the cerebellum, the flocculus-paraflocculus and the posterior vermis, which make mainly complementary contributions to the control of smooth pursuit..
MRI showed marked cerebellar vermis atrophy.
In the lobule X of vermis, such mossy fiber terminals were about 5-fold greater in number in RMN than in controls.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the normal appearance and study the biometry of the fetal cerebellar vermis by three-dimensional (3D) volume contrast imaging in the coronal (C-) plane (VCI-C). At the level of the view used to measure the transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD), a VCI-C plane was displayed to examine, using a transabdominal probe, the fetal mid-saggital vermis. The volumes acquired were stored for later review and measurement of the anteroposterior (AP) diameter, craniocaudal (CC) diameter and surface area of the cerebellar vermis. We were able to measure mid-sagittal CC diameter, mid-sagittal AP diameter and cerebellar vermis surface area in all fetuses. Measurements of the cerebellar vermis (AP diameter, CC diameter and surface area) correlated linearly with GA, BPD, HC and TCD (r > or = 0.82, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: VCI-C is a valuable tool, allowing intrauterine assessment of the normal appearance of the fetal cerebellar vermis. The nomograms developed in this study should enable accurate evaluation of the cerebellar vermis..
We evaluated the relationship among proliferation, death and migration of granule cells in lobules VI-VIII of vermis, in comparison with lobule III, during cerebellar development.
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