Septum Pellucidum

We report two autopsy cases that revealed the partial absence of the septum pellucidum with ventriculomegaly. The posterior portion of the septum pellucidum was absent and the fornices were fused in a single midline nodule, abnormally displaced to a caudal position and lodged in the foramina of Monro. We conclude that the caudally displaced fornix in the absence of the septum pellucidum may have intermittently obstructed the foramina of Monro and induced mild ventriculomegaly..  

RESULTS: The interhemispheric fissure, ocular bulbs, corpus callosum, infundibulum, chiasm, septum pellucidum (SP), profile, and palate were detectable in 95%, 95%, 89%, 87%, 82%, 81%, 78%, 78% of cases.  

Radio-logical predictors were presence of hydrocephalus (OR: 12.5; P < 0.002), septum pellucidum shift (OR: 9; P < 0.025), and location of sICH in the thalamus (OR: 9; P < 0.025). The RScale (L + H + S) was obtained by adding individual points assigned according presence of: sICH location in the thalamus (L) 2 points, hydrocephalus (H) 1.5 points, septum pellucidum shift (S) 3 points.  

RESULTS: Among the total of 66 (n=66) MRI films studied for brain abnormalities, brain atrophy, presence of septum pellucidum and enlarged Virchow-Robins spaces were significantly associated with schizophrenia (p < 0.001).  

The septum pellucidum was absent in 5 cases; however, optic nerve hypoplasia was not found in these patients.  

The authors measured the antero-posterior and medio-lateral locations of pixels in the CST in two areas of the CR (CR 1 - the first axial image to show the septum pellucidum and the body of the fornix from the vertex, and CR 2 - the axial image showing the insular gyrus).  

The majority of biopsies were performed in conjunction with CSF-diverting procedures, such as endoscopic third ventriculostomy or fenestration of the septum pellucidum.  

It was associated with a phenotype including cardiac defect, absence of septum pellucidum, and dysplasia of the corpus callosum..  

At malignant worsening all but 1 patient had hemorrhagic lesions; the median deviation of septum pellucidum was 12 mm (interquartile range, 6.7-13); 5 patients (including 3 who underwent operation) had a unilateral dilated pupil; and 4 (2 who underwent operation) had bilateral dilated pupils.  

Abstract In this paper, we present a case of a newborn male with a CNS malformation which is characterized mainly by complete fusion of the thalami, resulting in atresia of the third ventricle, accompanied by fusion of the anterior peduncles of the fornix, the presence of a single occult interventricular foramen lying at the midline, absence of the septum pellucidum, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, disorganization of the head of the left caudate nucleus, and greatly dilated lateral ventricles (hydrocephalus).The patient underwent surgical correction of his meningocele on his 4th postnatal day.  

SCH frequently occurs with additional cerebral malformations like hypoplasia or aplasia of the septum pellucidum or optic nerve, suggesting the involvement of genes important for the establishment of midline forebrain structures.  

MR images showed enhanced lesions in the anterior horn of the left lateral ventricle, and septum pellucidum.  

Prenatal ultrasound examination showed only hydrocephalus and absence of septum pellucidum.  

We completely removed the lesion in the third ventricle, adhering to the septum pellucidum.  

A 16-year-old boy with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of septum pellucidum in combination with left side persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is described.  

We report the first case in the literature of a solitary metastatic melanoma of the septum pellucidum, mimicking a colloidal cyst of the third ventricle. Even if metastases can occur anywhere within the central nervous system, the novelty in this report is their intracranial localization, as they have been detected in the septum pellucidum, a case never reported previously..  

We used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to accurately quantify the length and, for the first time, volume, of the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) in children aged 7 to 14years with 22q11.2DS and typically developing (TD) controls.  

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is the triad of optic nerve hypoplasia, panhypopituitarism, and agenesis of septum pellucidum, and has been described previously to be associated with heterotopias and midline interhemispheric cyst.  

The authors present a case of cystic choroid plexus papilloma within a cavum septum pellucidum that radiographically mimicked neurocysticercosis..  

The presence of bilateral optic atrophy in the second case, although without an absent septum pellucidum nor other brain anomalies resembles the infrequently reported disorder of septo-optic dysplasia with limb anomalies.  

A 24-year-old man, who had an asymptomatic septum pellucidum cyst incidentally found one year previously, presented with severe headache and right abducens nerve palsy caused by expansion of the midline cyst. Neuroendoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum cyst was successfully performed via a right frontal approach using a high-resolution flexible neuroendoscopic system without complication. septum pellucidum cavum vergae cyst may expand and become symptomatic, so fenestration using a flexible neuroendoscope system may be the optimal method for constructing communication to the bilateral lateral ventricles with minimal invasion..  

The cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), a putative marker of neurodevelopmental anomaly, has been associated with an increased risk of several psychiatric disorders.  

She first presented with severe headaches, and was seen by imaging to harbor a moderately enhancing mass 2.5cm in diameter at the rostral septum pellucidum accompanied by occlusive hydrocephalus.  

Septo-optic dysplasia, or de Morsier syndrome, is characterized by optic nerve hypoplasia with an absent septum pellucidum and/or pituitary abnormalities.  

Depending on the preoperative imaging and working diagnosis, endoscopic biopsy or endoscopic resection/debulking, along with concomitant treatment of hydrocephalus via third ventriculostomy or fenestration of the septum pellucidum and ventriculo-peritoneal shunting, were done.  

RESULTS: Neuropathologic examination revealed numerous neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), rare neuritic plaques (NPs), multiple cerebral infarcts, fenestrated septum pellucidum, atrophic and gliotic mamillary bodies, and pale substantia nigra and locus ceruleus.  

Neuropathologically, CTE is characterized by atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, mammillary bodies, and brainstem, with ventricular dilatation and a fenestrated cavum septum pellucidum.  

We used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the length of the adhesio interthalamica (AI) and cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) in 29 currently depressed patients, 27 remitted depressed patients, and 33 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects.  

The condition was treated successfully by endoscopic septum pellucidum fenestration. An endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum was performed, resulting in alleviation of the patient's symptoms. Endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum is an effective treatment..  

The authors report on a child with a unique extracortical location of DNET with an extensive involvement to the supracallosal cistern and callosum, septum pellucidum, and lateral ventricle ependyma.  

On example of three patients with septo-optic dysplasia the authors present a rare clinical entity involving combined disturbances of endocrine and neurologic systems and variable expressed clinical triad: 1) pituitary aplasia/dysplasia with pituitary hormones deficiency, 2) developmental disturbance of the middle-brain structures (corpus callosum and septum pellucidum), and 3) dysplastic changes of the optic nerve.  

The additional finding of an abnormally elongated pituitary infundibulum has not been described in this syndrome and, along with the presence of a regressing cystic cavum septum pellucidum, suggests that chronic underlying hydrocephalus may have been present..  

We used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the length of the adhesio interthalamica (AI) and cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) as well as third ventricular volume in 20 teenagers with first-presentation BPD and 20 healthy controls.  

RESULTS: The endoscopic findings were obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct by a membrane not related to the cyst in 5 patients, occlusion of the foramen of Monro in 6, septum pellucidum hypoplasia in 2, and occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct by a quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst in 1. Endoscopic procedures performed were septum pellucidum fenestration and/or foraminoplasty in 5 patients, aqueductoplasty in 2, endoscopic third ventriculostomy in 5, fenestration of the lamina terminalis in 1, and direct cystocisternostomy in 1.  

Seventy-six percent of the unarmed combatants had at least one finding that may be associated with TBI: 59% hippocampal atrophy, 43% cavum septum pellucidum, 32% dilated perivascular spaces, 29% diffuse axonal injury, 24% cerebral atrophy, 19% increased lateral ventricular size, 14% pituitary gland atrophy, 5% arachnoid cysts, and 2% had contusions.  

The first child was born in the 31st week of pregnancy with the symptoms of moderate intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and brain malformation in the form of right sided closed-lip schizencephaly with absence of septum pellucidum.  

RESULTS: The presence of ONH was significantly associated with an absent septum pellucidum [ odds ratio (OR) 31.5, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 7.3-136.6, P < 0.001], an abnormal corpus callosum (OR 10.5, 95% CI 3.8-28.6, P < 0.001) and stalk abnormalities (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.2, P = 0.009).  

In this article, we consider the normal appearances of the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix as shown on MR imaging in normal and near-normal states..  

Septo-optic dysplasia, also known as de Morsier syndrome, is a rare congenital entity almost always characterized by hypoplasia/dysplasia of the optical nerve, chiasma or optic radiations and the complete or partial absence of the septum pellucidum.  

Neuroendoscopic biopsy of a lesion in the septum pellucidum revealed noncaseating granulomas, which was consistent with sarcoidosis.  

OBJECTIVE: Although endoscopic perforation of the septum pellucidum in obstruction of the foramen of Monro is well known, detailed reports on endoscopic septostomy, including surgical technique and results are lacking in the literature. Cerebrospinal fluid circulation was obstructed by tumor (16 cases), multiloculated cystic hydrocephalus (8 cases, including 2 revisions), septum pellucidum cysts (3 cases), membranous or inflammatory isolated lateral ventricles (3 cases), and giant aneurysms (2 cases).  

CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The authors report a rare case of giant anterior interhemispheric racemose cysticercosis with extension to the region of septum pellucidum causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Most of the cysts could be successfully resected from the region of septum pellucidum and the anterior interhemisphere.  

Increased length of the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and in utero infection are each associated with increased risk of schizophrenia.  

CONCLUSIONS: Developmental abnormalities due to disruption of the complex neural network linking the septum pellucidum with other limbic structures may have been involved in the affective and psychotic disturbances observed in our patient..  

We subclassified schizencephaly based on the association with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) and the absence of the septum pellucidum (ASP), and then characterized their clinical presentation and prognosis.  

Magnetic resonance imaging showed an arachnoid cyst on the left temporal lobe, cavum septum pellucidum et vergae.  

On 2-D ultrasonography, the cephalic axial view showed multiple hypoechoic spaces in the fetal brain, both cerebral cortex and occipital lobe showed bilateral defects, and the septum pellucidum was absent.  

Given the common occurrence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and cavum vergae (CV), the endoscopic surgeon should be familiar with that particular anatomy especially as it pertains to surgery within the third ventricle.  

Partial agenesis of corpus callosum and absent septum pellucidum were also seen.  

OBJECTIVE: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT)-like neoplasms of the septum pellucidum are extremely rare. In both cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intraventricular tumor adjacent to the septum pellucidum.  

This syndrome involves hypoplasia of one or both optic nerves, absence of septum pellucidum, agenesis of the corpus callosum, cerebellar atrophy, ventricular dilatation and brain cysts, together with ectopic, aplastic or hypoplastic neurohypophysis.  

RESULTS: Our techniques of septum pellucidum fenestration, third ventriculostomy, lamina terminalis fenestration, temporal ventriculostomy, foraminoplasty of the foramen of Monro, aqueductoplasty, aqueductal stenting, and retrograde aqueductoplasty for trapped fourth ventricle are presented.  

An increased prevalence of large cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), a marker of midline neurodevelopmental abnormality, has been reported in schizophrenia.  

The mass resembled an aneurysm-like hematoma at the septum pellucidum.  

Despite a normal sized optic nerve head, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a hypoplastic intraorbital and intracranial left optic nerve in the absence of a septum pellucidum.  

INTRODUCTION: Mixed germ cell tumors (GCTs) consisting of a germinoma and a mature teratoma in the septum pellucidum have never been described previously; the patient we present here is the first reported example. Magnetic resonance imaging in our hospital revealed a large fatty mass located primarily in the septum pellucidum and some portions of the corpus callosum; a heterogeneous enhancing tumor was observed in the surrounding area.  

OBJECTIVE: The cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a space between the two leaflets of the septum pellucidum, and is a putative marker of disturbance in early brain development.  

BACKGROUND: Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is commonly known marker of neurodevelopmental brain malformation.  

The thin, vertically placed partition consisting of two laminae separated by a narrow chink constitutes the cavity of the septum pellucidum, known from the time of Sylvius.  

With neuroendoscopy we were able to describe the foramen of Monro and perform a fenestration of the septum pellucidum.  

When it is associated with absence of the septum pellucidum, it has been termed septo-optic dysplasia.  

It is generally found in the lateral or third ventricles in close relationship with the septum pellucidum, and commonly affects young adults.  

One case had recurrent seizure and abnormal behavior (laughter not associated with happiness), and another case with dysgenesis of corpus callosum and septum pellucidum.  

Absence of the septum pellucidum was not associated with adverse development.  

The reported prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), is extremely variable (from 0.1% to 85%) depending upon the measurement method or imaging resolution.  

Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a cystic partially enhancing midline mass within the right lateral ventricle, expanding the ventricle and displacing the septum pellucidum.  

However, variations of the septum pellucidum (SP) appearance and their clinical impact have not been studied in depth.  

The review presents the imaging appearances of some of the more common congenital and acquired lesions of the septum pellucidum..  

An MRI of the brain demonstrated the absence of the septum pellucidum, which confirmed a diagnosis of septo-optic dysplasia or de Morsier syndrome..  

The cavum septum pellucidum is among the alterations whose role in the disease is more unknown, since the cavity between the two septum laminae draws attention in very few cases.  

Other findings included a high frequency of cavum septum pellucidum or vergae, thickened corpus callosum, prominent optic nerve sheaths and a single case of venous sinus thrombosis.  

We retrospectively reviewed the medical records, radiological findings, initial clinical assessment using the Glasgow Coma Scale, serial computerized tomography (CT) with measurement of midline and septum pellucidum shift, and cerebral infarction territories.  

(3) On the contrary, the constellation of abnormalities that selectively involve the white matter (non-progressive, non-destructive ventriculomegaly, callosal agenesis or thinning, agenesis of septum pellucidum, paucity of the antero-mesial temporal white matter, pyramidal hypoplasia) is much more likely to constitute a primary disorder. L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) gene plays a major role in the development of the white matter and its mutation in humans (callosal agenesis, retardation, adducted thumbs, spasticity, and hydrocephalus syndrome, Bickers-Adams syndrome) or in mice causes similar defects of the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum, centrum semi-ovale, and cortico-spinal tracts.  

Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is an uncommon developmental disorder involving variable midline brain structures, characterized by optic nerve hypoplasia, dysgenesis of septum pellucidum, and pituitary-hypothalamic dysfunction such as growth hormone deficiency.  

Six years postoperatively she presented with right-sided slit-ventricle syndrome and stenosis of the right Monro foramen, which was treated with an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and fenestration of the septum pellucidum. Inspection of the right lateral ventricle with a fiberscope revealed occlusion of the septum pellucidum fenestration; on observation, the right Monro foramen was covered by thick, tough granulation tissue and the left was occluded by thin membranous tissue. Repeated fenestration of the septum pellucidum and left Monro foraminoplasty were therefore performed by perforating this thin tissue. A stent was then introduced into the third ventricle via the right lateral ventricle, the fenestration in the septum pellucidum, and the left Monro foramen.  

Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) (De Morsier's syndrome) is a complex developmental disorder marked by variable and often incomplete formation of cranial midline structures, resulting in absence of the septum pellucidum, optic nerve hypoplasia, and hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction.  

Of these, 12 subjects (15.6%) demonstrated a combination of absence of the septum pellucidum and severe thinning or absence of the posteromesial cerebral mantle.  

RESULTS: Our techniques of septum pellucidum fenestration, third ventriculostomy, lamina terminalis fenestration, temporal ventriculostomy, foraminoplasty of the foramen of Monro, aqueductoplasty, aqueductal stenting, and retrograde aqueductoplasty for trapped fourth ventricle are presented.  

Increased frequency of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) has been inconsistently observed in schizophrenia, and little is known about its functional implications.  

In one case, cerebral hemiatrophy was associated with ipsilateral large schizencephalic cleft and absence of the septum pellucidum, whereas in another case, there was diffuse cerebellar atrophy associated with cerebral hemiatrophy.  

A 35-year-old female presented with a cavernous angioma of the septum pellucidum manifesting as headache and nausea. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass at the septum pellucidum with intraventricular hemorrhage and mild hydrocephalus. In particular, cavernous angioma at the septum pellucidum is very rare.  

MRI showed diffuse pachygyria, moderate thickening of the cortex, enlarged ventricles, agenesis of the corpus callosum and septum pellucidum.  

RESULTS: Before surgery, all patients had pronounced (>1-cm) shift of the septum pellucidum and one third had clinical signs of uncal herniation.  

The structural lesions discussed include arachnoid cyst, Chiari malformation Type I, cavum septum pellucidum, and the presence of ventriculoperitoneal shunts.  

Additional supratentorial anomalies were agenesis of septum pellucidum, moderate hydrocephalus and hypogenesis of corpus callosum.  

TECHNIQUE: However, in the presence of abnormal ventricular configuration such as cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), this basic knowledge needs to be modified.  

OBJECTIVE: Cysts of the septum pellucidum (CSPs) may become symptomatic because of obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid flow, resulting in increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus requiring surgical intervention.  

A persistent cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is present in approximately 0.73% of adults, although its incidence ranges from 0.14 to 18.9% depending on the detection method.  

MRI autopsy showed internal organ abnormalities including congenital hernia of the left diaphragm, secondary hypoplasia of the left lung, atrial and ventricular septal defect, dilatation of calices of the kidneys, bilateral anophthalmia, hypoplasia of the optic nerves, hyperintensity of pituitary gland possibly due to bleeding and a cyst of the septum pellucidum.  

MRI revealed a thin right optic nerve, an asymmetrically thinned chiasm, and an absent septum pellucidum.  

Septal agenesis is a rare brain malformation that is characterized by partial or complete absence of the septum pellucidum, either isolated or associated with other brain anomalies.  

We report the natural history of the closure of the cavum septum pellucidum in 47 premature infants. In this study, a cavum septum pellucidum was present in all patients at 25 to 26 weeks' postconceptual age, in keeping with previous reports. The data from this study suggest that premature delivery does not change the natural history of the normal closure of the cavum septum pellucidum in most infants by 36 to 40 weeks' postconceptual age. Although not statistically significant, there is a suggestion from these data that higher grades of intraventricular hemorrhage are more frequently associated with loss (early closure) of the cavum septum pellucidum. One particularly illustrative case with a grade 4 intraventricular hemorrhage and subsequent hydrocephalus suggests that increases in pressure and volume in the lateral ventricles can cause the laminae of the septum pellucidum to approximate and appear to fuse earlier than expected. However, the fact that the cavum septum pellucidum reappeared in this case after ventricular pressure was decreased (postventricular shunt) suggests that approximation is not the sole factor in definitive fusion of the laminae of the septum pellucidum..  

In contrast, increased neurological soft signs (NSSs), diminished hippocampal volume, and presence of abnormal cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) were found in Vietnam combat veteran twins with PTSD and their "high-risk," unexposed cotwins compared to Vietnam combat veteran twins without PTSD and their "low-risk," unexposed cotwins.  

OBJECTIVE: Ten rare cases of symptomatic septum pellucidum cysts in patients who underwent endoscopic fenestration are described. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: In the past 5 years, 10 patients (age range, 3-60 yr) with symptomatic septum pellucidum cysts underwent neuroendoscopic fenestration. Magnetic resonance imaging scans of 10 patients showed septum pellucidum cysts, two with hydrocephalus, and two with pituitary microadenoma. CONCLUSION: Neuroendoscopic pellucidotomy could be an effective, safe, and convenient therapeutic method for symptomatic septum pellucidum cysts.  

CNPase immunoreactive amoeboid microglia occurred in large numbers in the corpus callosum, subventricular zone and cavum septum pellucidum at P0 but were progressively reduced with age and were undetectable at P14.  

Abscesses involving the cavum septum pellucidum are rare and, owing to their location, detection may be difficult with routine conventional computed tomography (CT). We report a case of abscess involving the cavum septum pellucidum in an adult and its appearance on multi-slice spiral CT..  

RESULTS: Eight fetuses (mean gestational age, 23 weeks; range, 20-30 weeks) with the following central nervous system anomalies were examined: semilobar holoprosencephaly, absent cavum septum pellucidum, porencephaly in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, Dandy-Walker variant, open-lip schizencephaly, aneurysm of the vein of Galen, and dilated cavum vergae.  

The areas were localized to the frontal gyral white matter, temporal gyral white matter, optic radiation, and others (corpus callosum, septum pellucidum, fasciculus subcallosus, and external capsule), with a greater distribution in the gyral white matter.  

The growth of central neurocytoma was of close spatial relation to the septum pellucidum. This is especially applicable for tumours involving both lateral ventricles with symmetrical growth around the centre of septum pellucidum or for unilateral ventricular tumors with a wide base attachment to the septum pellucidum..  

The anterior and posterior commissures and one additional point on the midline (the septum pellucidum) were determined on the axial T2-weighted images.  

We describe a case of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor of the septum pellucidum presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus and its successful endoscopic excision.  

Compared with complete fetal surveys performed with 2D US, individual fetal anatomic landmarks (except for fetal arms and cavum septum pellucidum) were identified more than 94% of the time by using 3D US.  

Endocrinopathies were not associated with ONH laterality, absence of the septum pellucidum, or pituitary abnormalities on neuroimaging.  

These lesions vary in prevalence from common (cavum of the septum pellucidum, subependymal cyst, choroid plexus cyst) to rare (vein of Galen malformation).  

Several studies have independently suggested that patients with schizophrenia are more likely to have an enlarged cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and an absent adhesio interthalamica (AI), respectively.  

Among these required structures are: cerebellum, cisterna magna, lateral cerebral ventricles, choroid plexus, midline falx, and cavum septum pellucidum. All these structures can be visualized in three crucial planes of imaging that include cisterna magna/cerebellum, cavum septum pellucidum, and ventricular atria.  

This case illustrates that the septum pellucidum is made of two layers and that a potential space exists between these layers. Caution is recommended when injecting a single-hole ventricular catheter if the tip is against the septum pellucidum..  

In the literature, the most frequently involved structures include: 1/ corpus callosum (hypoplasia, short corpus callosum and verticalized splenium), 2/ septum pellucidum (cavum septum pellucidum or cavum vergae), 3/ ventricles (ventriculomegaly), 4/ cerebral cortex (cortical dysplasia), 5/ cerebellum (hypoplasia), and 6/ extra-axial CSF spaces (enlargement).  

Readers rated corpus callosum involvement, midline spread, subependymal spread, new discrete multiple enhancing foci, a "spreading wavefront" appearance, and septum pellucidum involvement.  

In an MRI study examining anomalies of the septum pellucidum in 505 cases, we detected bilateral septum formation of the lateral ventricles in a 17-month-old baby.  

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the diagnosis, surgical indication, endoscopic fenestration procedures, and prognosis of symptomatic septum pellucidum cyst. METHOD: Ten patients with symptomatic septum pellucidum cyst showing clinical symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure and epilepsy with the maximal cyst width ranging from 12 to 35 mm underwent endoscopic cystoventriculostomy. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic cystoventriculostomy is effective in the treatment of symptomatic septum pellucidum cyst, but care must be taken to avoid collateral injury in the operation..  

RESULTS: In 13 cases ventricular catheter was tethered in the choroid plexus, in 7 cases -- under the ependyma and in 9 cases -- in septum pellucidum.  

Postnatal examination showed no abnormalities, and brain MRI at 8 months of age revealed that the CVI was unchanged, but there was a dilated cavum septum pellucidum and cavum vergae.  

BACKGROUND: Tumor involving the septum pellucidum is uncommon. We analyzed the clinical characteristics and pathological features of septum pellucidum tumor in 41 patients and compared the curative effects of frontal transcortical, trans-sulcal and interhemispheric transcallosal approaches. METHODS: Clinical characteristics and the pathological features of septum pellucidum tumor were investigated retrospectively in 41 patients. RESULTS: septum pellucidum tumor is more likely to attack young or middle-aged persons. CONCLUSIONS: Operation is still regarded the major treatment for septum pellucidum tumor. Transcallosal and trans-sulcus approaches are fit with the concept of minimally invasive surgery, and transcallosal approach is the first choice for septum pellucidum tumor..  

METHODS: Fifty-one patients with craniopharyngioma of the third ventricle were treated from January 2000 to October 2004 by an improved transventricular approach for removing the tumor via the interventricular foramen, the intermedius of the septum pellucidum or choroid fissure.  

Expanding cysts of the septum pellucidum are rare and frequently manifest as intermittent headaches. To provide experience in navigator endoscopic treatment of symptomatic cyst of septum pellucidum and long-term follow-up of the surgical result. The technique of navigator-assisted endoscopic fenestration in the treatment of a symptomatic cyst of the septum pellucidum might be a safe and effective method.  

Among them, 190 were treated by third ventriculostomy, 30 by V-P shunt, and 142 patients with complicated hydrocephalus and unsymmetry hydrocephalus by endoscopy-controlled pathologic septum fenestration, septum pellucidum fenestration, and treatment of inventricula inflammation.  

The tumor involved the left wall of the third ventricle, the septum pellucidum, and the anterior horn of the left lateral ventricle.  

OBJECTIVE: Since there is no current consensus on the diagnostic standards or surgical indications for symptomatic cysts of the septum pellucidum (CSP), we presented our experience treating such cases with neuroendoscopic surgery in order to possibly make a contribution to the attainment of such a consensus.  

BACKGROUND: The cavum of the septum pellucidum (CSP) is a small cavity constantly present in fetuses and newborns, of variable frequency among necropsied adults and with a high frequency in professional boxers. The largest frequency of CSP found in fatal victims of head trauma, particularly in patients with severe diffuse axonal lesion (grades 2 and 3), when compared with the individuals without a history of head trauma, suggests that the high-intensity angular acceleration of the head causes complementary and independent displacement of the 2 cerebral hemispheres and dislocation of one of the leaves of the septum pellucidum on the other.  

Standard sonographic views of the brain obtained along the axial planes at mid-gestation failed to identify absence of the septum pellucidum in two consecutive fetuses. In the other fetus, isolated absence of the septum pellucidum was the final diagnosis. Standard axial scans are unreliable in predicting absence of the septum pellucidum in the mid-trimester fetus when the lateral ventricles are normal in size..  

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the characteristic morphological features that may help in the prenatal differential diagnosis of absent septum pellucidum as demonstrated by ultrasound. The communication between the ventricles in hydrocephalic fetuses may be due to a disruption of the septum pellucidum or to a pathological enlargement of the foramen of Monro.  

Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD; De Morsier syndrome) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by the absence of the septum pellucidum (SP), hypoplasia of the optic chiasma and nerves, and various types of hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction.  

Eight children had absent septum pellucidum, 3 had pituitary gland hypoplasia, 2 had pituitary stalk dysplasia (pituitary stalk was either attenuated or not visualized), 2 had absent corpus callosum and one had absent posterior pituitary high intensity signal.  

Cranial CT or MRI in 42 affected individuals revealed asymmetric or dilated ventricles in 24%, cerebral atrophy in 10%, cavum septum pellucidum in 19%, dysgenesis or agenesis of the corpus callosum in 10%, and meningioma in 5%.  

Two of them occupied the lateral ventricle, appearing to be attached to the septum pellucidum, and the other three tumors arose from the septum pellucidum and extended into the lateral ventricles.  

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Was to determine the influence of the persistent cavum of the septum pellucidum (CSP) on the children intellectual development in different age groups.  

Both showed possible reflux of the cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid spaces to the cerebral ventricles, appearing cyst of the septum pellucidum, possibly due to the increase of the intraventricular pressure.  

Endoscopic plasty of the right foramen of Monro, fenestration of the septum pellucidum, and revision of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt were performed.  

STUDY DESIGN: Intracranial ON sizes from MRI were compared between 46 children with ONH diagnosed by ophthalmoscopy (group 1, isolated ONH, 8 children; and group 2, ONH associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and septum pellucidum, 38 children) and children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (group 3, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, 14 children), isolated growth hormone deficiency (group 4, isolated growth hormone deficiency, 15 children), and idiopathic short stature (group 5, idiopathic short stature, 10 children).  

Contrast cranial MRI, at the age of 3, demonstrated enlargement of the third and lateral ventricles, a ballooned cyst inside the third ventricle with compression of all the diencephalic structures, a funnel dilation of the cranial part of the aqueduct, and a cyst in the septum pellucidum.  

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