Pineal Gland

The Ca(2+) signal generated by KCl depolarization or acetylcholine propagated through several cell layers by virtue of the regenerative "glutamate-induced glutamate release." Therefore, we suggest that glutamate transporters mediate synchronized elevation of l-glutamate and thereby efficiently downregulate melatonin secretion via previously identified inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors in the pineal gland..  

The pineal gland hormone melatonin has been recently described to downregulate the intrinsic (or damage-induced) pathway of apoptosis in human leukocytes.  

Endodermal sinus tumor, or yolk sac tumor, is the most common malignant neoplasm of germ cell origin and usually occurs in infant testes or ovaries.(1) On rare occasions, the tumor may arise from extragonadal sites, including sacrococcygeal region, uterus, vagina, prostate, retroperitoneum, liver, mediastinum, pineal gland, and third ventricle.(1) The orbit is an unusual location for the primary development of this neoplasm.(2,3) We report the case of a girl with primary orbital endodermal sinus tumor who was managed with exenteration and chemotherapy with the result of a disease-free survival of 9 years..  

Pineoblastomas constitute less than half of these pineal gland tumors.  

ADAM22 expression is strong in some brain nuclei and in the pineal gland.  

Metastases to the pineal gland are rare and reported cases have consisted primarily of gastrointestinal and lung primary malignancies. Here we present the case of a 66-year-old female with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney and liver disease who was found at autopsy to have an unrecognized infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with metastases to the liver, lungs and pineal gland. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a metastasis of infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas to the pineal gland..  

Glial cysts of the pineal gland are benign and mostly asymptomatic incidental lesions found in the brain MRI or at autopsy examinations. In this paper we present detailed histopathological characteristics of symptomatic glial cysts in 2 surgical cases and of asymptomatic cysts of the pineal gland found at random in 3 autopsy cases. Preoperative MR imaging suggested tumour of the pineal gland in case no. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of the specimens from both surgical and all autopsy cases revealed a characteristic pattern of cystic structures within the pineal gland, surrounded by layers of a dense fibrillar glial tissue and pineal parenchyma, consistent with non-neoplastic glial cysts.  

After the discovery of melatonin in the pineal gland by Lerner and co-workers in 1958, melatonin was also detected in the retina and the human appendix. The concentrations of melatonin in the GIT are 10-100x higher than in the plasma and the total amount of melatonin in the GIT is around 400x higher than the amount of melatonin in the pineal gland.  

Pax6 is essential for development of the pineal gland. In this study, we report that Pax4 is strongly expressed in the pineal gland and retina of the rat. In the adult, the abundance of Pax4 mRNA exhibits a diurnal rhythm in the pineal gland with maximal levels occurring late during the light period. Sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy prevents the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA. At night, the pineal gland is adrenergically stimulated by release of norepinephrine from the sympathetic innervation; here, we found that treatment with adrenergic agonists suppresses pineal Pax4 expression in vivo and in vitro. This suppression appears to be mediated by cyclic AMP, a second messenger of norepinephrine in the pineal gland, based on the observation that treatment with a cyclic AMP mimic reduces pineal Pax4 mRNA levels. The daily changes in Pax4 expression may influence gene expression in the pineal gland..  

Melatonin production in cannulated or ophthalmectomized fish and its secretion from cultured pineal glands were examined under several light regimes. Static pineal gland culture under light-dark and reverse light-dark cycles revealed that melatonin synthesis increased during the dark periods. Rhythmic melatonin synthesis disappeared on pineal gland culture under constant dark and light conditions. These results suggest that (1) Mozambique tilapias possess strong photic responsiveness, (2) their pineal glands are sensitive to light but lack circadian pacemaker activity, and (3) they require lateral eyes for rhythmic melatonin secretion from the pineal gland..  

MT content of pineal gland tissue was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and neuroethological scores of the rats were evaluated by Kuluz's and Julio's methods.  

The pineal gland or epiphysis of brain is endocrine, producing the melatonin. pineal gland was located in the habenular commissure in the most caudal portion of the third ventricular roof, lying in a dorso-caudal position from the base to the apex. The pineal gland was classified as subcallosal type [ Rec.  

The effect of melatonin, a major secretory product of the pineal gland, in attenuation of propoxur (2-isopropoxy phenyl N-methyl carbamate)-induced modulation of cell-mediated immune (CMI) response was studied in rats.  

In mammals, extraretinal photoreceptors have been lost, and the nocturnal melatonin signal generated from the pineal gland has been co-opted to provide the photoperiodic message.  

In agreement with this hypothesis, we report herein the amount of Aa-nat mRNA in the camel pineal gland is high, during both the day and night with no daily variations, while melatonin concentration in the same pineal tissue is five times higher during the night than daytime..  

Trilateral retinoblastoma is characterized by retinal tumors in one or both eyes, as well as tumors of the pineal gland or parasellar region of the brain.  

Its production in the pineal gland has been extensively investigated but other organs also synthesize this important amine.  

We report an unusual case of sarcoidosis involving the pineal gland with radiographic, histopathology, and clinical data. Histopathologic analysis did not reveal a pineoblastoma but instead revealed noncaseating granulomas within the pineal gland. This mass lesion was diagnosed as solitary neurosarcoidosis of the pineal gland, without dissemination. Although rare, sarcoidosis of the pineal gland should not be excluded from a comprehensive differential diagnosis of an enhancing pineal region mass..  

An immunohistochemical study of the density of melatonin receptors 1A in the neurons of the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei with diverse functional activity of the pineal gland has been carried out. The density of melatonin receptors 1A under conditions of the physiological function of the pineal gland was characterized by clear-cut diurnal variations.  

Dynamics of rhythmic oscillations in the activity of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT, the penultimate and key regulatory enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis) were examined in the retina and pineal gland of turkeys maintained for 7 days in the environment without daily light-dark (LD) changes, namely constant darkness (DD) or continuous light (LL). In the retina, a circadian AA-NAT activity rhythm disappeared after 5 days of DD, while in the pineal gland it persisted for the whole experiment. No circadian rhythm was observed in the retinas of turkeys exposed to LL, although rhythmic oscillations in both AA-NAT and melatonin content were found in the pineal glands. It is suggested that the retina of turkey is less able to maintain rhythmicity in constant environment and is more sensitive to changes in the environmental lighting conditions than the pineal gland. Our results indicate that, in contrast to mammals, pineal glands of light-exposed galliformes maintain the limited capacity to rhythmically produce melatonin..  

Melatonin (MEL) is synthesized mainly in the pineal gland and derived from 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP).  

The most striking feature noted in this study is the presence of numerous melanocytes in the connective tissue capsule of the pineal gland, in the connecting stalk and in the connective tissue core of the highly convoluted suprahabenular recess in M.  

Besides to their brainstem location where I1-receptor sites play a significant role to regulate and modulate blood pressure, they also are found in different parts of brain with the highest densities in the striatum, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, substantia nigra, while I3-receptor sites were revealed in pancreas which enhances insulin secretion, I2-receptors are widely distributed in interpeduncular nucleus, arcuate and pineal gland and take a part in monoamine turnover.  

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. In this study, we report that (a) 5-HT total output from the pineal gland and TPH1 protein levels both display diurnal rhythms with a twofold increase at night; (b) stimulation of cAMP signaling elevates 5-HT output in vivo; (c) 5-HT total output and TPH1 protein content in rat pineal gland are both acutely inhibited by light exposure at night. Consistent with these findings, molecular analysis of TPH1 protein revealed that (a) TPH1 is phosphorylated at the serine 58 in vitro and in the night pineal gland; and (b) phosphorylation of TPH1 at this residue is required for cAMP-enhanced TPH1 protein stability. These data support the model that increased nocturnal 5-HT synthesis in the pineal gland is mediated by the phosphorylation of TPH1 at the serine 58, which elevates the TPH1 protein content and activity at night..  

We measured the absolute displacement of a midline structure, the pineal gland, on brain scans of 39 migraineurs and 26 controls. We found a significant asymmetry of the pineal gland in migraineurs compared with controls.  

Dab2 protein was also identified within circumventricular organs including the choroid plexus, subcommissural organ and pineal gland during their early development. While Dab2 was still strongly expressed in the adult choroid plexus, immunoreactivity within the subcommissural organ and pineal gland was lost after birth.  

Melatonin is not only synthesized by the pineal gland but also in many other organs and tissues of the body, particularly by lymphoid organs such as the bone marrow, thymus and lymphocytes.  

Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant agent secreted by the pineal gland which has numerous physiological functions and seems to exert an important neuroprotective effect.  

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is synthesized and released by the pineal gland following a circadian rhythm characterized by high levels during the night.  

Photoreceptor cells in the fish pineal gland transduce light-dark information differentially into a neuroendocrine melatonin message; distinguishing features are the presence or absence of endogenous oscillators that drive these rhythms.  

However, this chief secretory product of the pineal gland is now recognized to also exert numerous additional functions which range from free radical scavenging and DNA repair via immunomodulation, body weight control and the promotion of wound healing to the coupling of environmental cues to circadian clock gene expression and the modulation of secondary endocrine signalling (e.g.  

MRI study revealed in the left internal acoustic meatus mass (7 x 7 x 14 mm) suggesting acoustic neuroma and an oval mass (7 x 9 x 14 mm) in the pineal gland presenting radiological features of pinealoma.  

The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. Here, we have described resources that may be useful in comparative and functional genomic analysis of genes expressed in an important organ, the pineal gland, in a model and agriculturally important organism..  

For the first time, in the present study, we established a method for analysis of the expression levels of most clock genes (Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1, Dec1 and Dec2) and AANAT in a single rat pineal gland and used it to investigate individual and cooperative effects of feeding and light cycle reversals on the pineal circadian system. Feeding reversal (RF) alone for 7 days had only weak effect on the rhythmicity of clock gene expression in the pineal gland, whereas light/dark reversal for the same period without any change in the feeding regime could not absolutely reverse the expression phases of all examined genes either. However, reversal of the LD cycle together with the feeding regime completely resynchronized the circadian gene expression in the pineal gland within 7 days. In addition, the inability of RF in the pineal circadian system suggests that the pineal gland is more strongly coupled to the master clock than other peripheral organs and alternatively distinguishes it from other peripheral organs in the hierarchically organized mammalian circadian systems..  

For further analysis of the interactions between melatonin and insulin, diabetic rats were investigated with respect to melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland and plasma insulin levels.  

The enterochromaffin cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract secrete 400 times as much melatonin as the pineal gland; therefore, it is not surprising that research is finding that this indole plays an important role in GI functioning.  

Suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and the pineal gland ensure that sleep and wakefulness follow a circadian periodicity of nearly 24 hours.  

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is the chief secretory product of the pineal gland and synthesized enzymatically from serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine).  

Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland and this is linked to the day/night cycle.  

Although the fetal pineal gland does not secrete melatonin, the fetus is exposed to melatonin of maternal origin.  

The primary conductor of circadian rhythms of birds is the pineal gland. The presence of PACAP has been demonstrated both in the rat and avian pineal gland, where PACAP stimulates melatonin synthesis. The signaling mechanism, by which PACAP modulates melatonin synthesis and circadian rhythmic functions of the pineal gland, is only partially known.  

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to investigate if the aqueous extract of the Chinese medicine Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS) can increase the plasma level of melatonin and enhance the function of the pineal gland of naturally aged rats. The function of pineal gland were measured through three parameters: pineal beta adrenergic receptor binding investigated by [ 3H]DHA binding; pineal expression of NAT mRNA detected by real-time RT-PCR; phosphorylation of CREB (P-CREB) and total level of CREB (T-CREB) measured by western blot analysis. The stimulatory effect of DSS on the expression of NAT mRNA in the old rat pineal gland has been demonstrated in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that a downstream pathway for DSS induction of melatonin synthesis in the rat pineal gland acts via cyclic AMP-dependent cascade and transcription mechanism..  

We report the fourth case of a primary germ cell tumor occurring after the treatment of a primary CNS germ cell tumor in a 27 year-old male with embryonal cell carcinoma of the testicle 9 years after the treatment of a germ cell tumor of the pineal gland.  

In the mammalian pineal gland, the rhythm in melatonin biosynthesis depends on the norepinephrine (NE)-driven regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis. A recent study showed that phytocannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol reduce AANAT activity and attenuate NE-induced melatonin biosynthesis in rat pineal glands, raising the possibility that an endocannabinoid system is present in the pineal gland. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed cannabinoid (CB) receptors and specific enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis or catabolism in rat pineal glands and cultured pinealocytes. In summary, the pineal gland comprises indispensable compounds of the endocannabinoid system indicating that endocannabinoids may be involved in the control of pineal physiology..  

Analysis of the study results shows that the administration of Epithalamin pineal gland peptide medication to middle-aged and elderly women with ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension improves lipid metabolism and reduces the diurnal arterial pressure level, thus decreasing the risk of fatal cardiovascular complications..  

In order to define the functional morphology of the pineal gland (epiphysis) and to reveal extrapineal sources of melatonin (MT) during human aging, biopsy samples obtained from 175 male persons aged 16 to 84 were examined.  

Morphological changes that take place in the epiphysis in the course of age involution are inseparably associated with a drastic decrease in the synthesis of melatonin (MT) - the main hormone of the pineal gland that coordinates biorhythms of the body at all system levels. The pineal gland is not the only organ able producing MT Multiple research have proved that the extrapineal MT is also widely present in human and animal organism.  

An important corollary was the finding that antidepressant drugs acted as inhibitors of this uptake process.Subsequent work in his laboratory on the control of melatonin biosynthesis in the pineal gland provided new insights into the way in which the nervous system controls circadian rhythms, and offered an early model system in which to study the rapid control of mammalian gene expression.  

Light at night has two major physiological actions, i.e., it disrupts circadian rhythms and suppresses the production of melatonin by the pineal gland.  

Pretreatment with either S-methylisothiourea (S-MT), a selective iNOS inhibitor, or melatonin, a major secretory product of pineal gland, counteracted the over expression of iNOS induced by AMPH in a concentration-dependent manner.  

The diurnal dynamics of the ribbon complex persist under constant darkness and decrease after stimulus deprivation of the pineal gland by constant light.  

The aim of this work is to determine the mechanisms by which melatonin, a hormone produced in the brain by the pineal gland, inhibits the catalytic activity of EPO.  

The frequent origin sites are mediastinum, retroperitoneum, sacrococcygeal region, and the pineal gland.  

BACKGROUND: Anticancer immunity is under psychoneuroendocrine regulation, mainly via the pineal gland and brain opioid system, which may stimulate and inhibit antitumor immunity respectively.  

It is produced by the pineal gland and within the retina; its release is blocked by light entering the eye.  

Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone secreted nightly by pineal gland and regulates biological rhythms.  

Melatonin, the main product secreted by the pineal gland has oncostatic properties.  

The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains light-sensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system. In Tg(P(20)-rh/P:gfp) fish, PIPE-dependent gene expression is visualized by GFP fluorescence in the pineal gland along with PIPE-independent GFP signals in the retinal rod photoreceptors. The transgenic fish exhibit detectable and reproducible GFP fluorescence in the larval pineal gland by 5 days postfertilization. The results suggest that the Tg(P(20)-rh/P:gfp) line will be useful for detecting deficits in PIPE-dependent gene expression in the pineal gland..  

Melatonin synthesis in the retina as well as in the pineal gland exhibits daily variations with higher levels during the dark phase of light-dark cycles.  

Biosynthesis and metabolism of serotonin and catecholamines involve at least eight individual enzymes that are mainly expressed in tissues derived from the neuroectoderm, e.g., the central nervous system (CNS), pineal gland, adrenal medulla, enterochromaffin tissue, sympathetic nerves, and ganglia.  

Whereas most teratomas occur in the ovaries and testes of adolescents, they can be found in midline structures such as sacrococcygeum (congenitally), anterior mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and the pineal gland.  

Melatonin, the main secretary product of the pineal gland, is potentially effective in the prevention of a number of diseases in which free radical processes are involved.  

The possible mechanisms of the effects of external magnetic stimulation on the pineal gland in the brain are presented..  

The goal of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the incidence of pineal gland calcification (PGC), to investigate the interaction of PGC and aging, and to compare the incidence of PGC among the populations living in Turkey. This study provides some reference data for new clinical studies on the putative role of pineal gland in future..  

Nonmammalian vertebrates use photoreceptors located deep in the brain and in the pineal gland as well as others in the retina.  

RORbeta expression is largely restricted to several regions of the brain, the retina, and pineal gland.  

INTRODUCTION: Pineoblastomas are a category of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs) occurring in the pineal gland; some studies support the impression that patients with pineoblastomas have a worse prognosis than those with other sPNETs.  

Descartes intuitively anticipated the so-called 'binding problem' of consciousness and thought that the pineal gland enables spatio-temporal integration in cognitive processing. Recent findings indicate that a major role in the process of temporal integration and binding involve neurons in suprachiasmatic nuclei, specifically targeting the pineal gland and other structures, and control the neuroendocrine rhythms.  

The highest activity was measured in the choroids plexus and the pineal gland.  

Isolated pathology, such as a calcification of the pineal gland and focal demyelination of vascular origin were detected in individual children.  

Our previous studies showed that neurotoxicity induced by AMPH was mediated by enhanced oxidative stress and these effects were abolished by melatonin, a main secretory product of pineal gland.  

They are chiefly located in the pineal gland, the next most common being site being the suprasellar region and the fourth ventricle, although simultaneous presentation in these locations is relatively rare (5-10% of cases).  

The regulatory influence of the pineal gland on superficial wound healing and collagen content is documented. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the pineal gland and its secretory product melatonin regulate collagen accumulation in the scar of the infarcted heart and to explain the mechanisms of its action.  

To estimate the sign and measure of changes of the pineal gland volume in perimenopausal period a magnetic-resonance tomography studies of the head of men (n=72) and women (n=74) of 38-61-year old were organized, in group divided into two subgroups with a space of 2 years. For estimation of possible dependency of the pineal gland volume on the reproductive cycle phase the similar study was organized in groups of women of the first (n=34) and second mature age (n=41) with regular cycle who were divided into subgroups by the phase of the cycle fixed retrospectively by the basal temperature graphs. The valid reduction of the pineal gland volume was registered in women of ovulate phase as well as during perimenopausal period. In context of literary data concerning recurrence and age dynamic of melatonin production by the pineal gland participation of pineal gland in "shutdown" of reproductive functions in women is supposed..  

Melatonin was initially extracted from the pineal gland and was thought to be produced exclusively by this organ. Over the last thirty years, a great number of reports have documented a relationship between melatonin/pineal gland and the immune system in various species, including humans.  

Melatonin, the hormone of the pineal gland, received recently a great deal of attention because of its suggested role in aging processes and availability as over-the-counter drug or food supplement in some countries, including Poland.  

Melatonin, known as a product of pineal gland is also produced in the digestive system.  

Melatonin, the main product of the pineal gland, is also released from the gastrointestinal endocrine-neurocrine (EE) cells.  

Melatonin, a major hormone of pineal gland, whose activity is also abundant in the gastrointestinal tract, was shown to inhibit gastric acid secretion, augment GBF and scavenge free radicals, resulting in the attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Using rats with intact pineal glands and those with removed pineal glands (pinealectomy) exposed to water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) at both, day and night hours, we studied the effect of light and nocturnal melatonin on the formation of these lesions, and accompanying changes in GBF and plasma melatonin levels. Melatonin, a major hormone of pineal gland, whose activity is also abundant in the gastrointestinal tract, was shown to inhibit gastric acid secretion, augment GBF and scavenge free radicals, resulting in the attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Using rats with intact pineal glands and those with removed pineal glands (pinealectomy) exposed to water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) at both, day and night hours, we studied the effect of light and nocturnal melatonin on the formation of these lesions, and accompanying changes in GBF and plasma melatonin levels.  

Melatonin in GIT was shown to be generated in about 500 times larger amounts than it is produced in pineal gland. The production of melatonin by pineal gland shows circadian rhythm with high night-time peak, especially at younger age, followed by the fall during the day-light time. After oral application of tryptophan, the plasma melatonin increases in dose-dependent manner both in intact and pinealectomized animals, indicating that extrapineal sources such as GIT rather than pineal gland are the major producers of this indole.  

Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an atypical appearance with enhancement of a mildly prominent pineal gland, possibly representing a pineal cyst.  

Melatonin, an indole mainly synthesized in the pineal gland during the dark phase, plays a role as an endogenous antioxidant and an anticancer agent in many tumors.  

NAT was not expressed in the placenta and was negligible in the pineal gland of the fetus compared with the mother's pineal gland. In conclusion, maternal circulating melatonin is from the maternal pineal gland and is increased by placental hormones during pregnancy..  

Ganglioglioma may arise anywhere throughout the neuraxis including the optic nerve, brain stem, pineal gland, cerebellum, cerebrum and spinal cord; however, the majority of glioneuronal neoplasms involve the temporal lobe.  

melatonin (MT) is a hormone produced by the pineal gland at night, involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms.  

Melatonin, the chief secretory product of the vertebrate pineal gland is suspected to be a ubiquitous molecule principally involved in the transduction of photoperiodic information.  

The photoreceptive retina and the non-photoreceptive pineal gland are components of the circadian and the melatonin forming system in mammals. For this purpose, the 24-h profiles of the expression of the genes coding for arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A), nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B), retinoic acid related orphan receptor beta (RORbeta), dopamine D4 receptor, and period2 (Per2) have been simultaneously recorded in the retina and the pineal gland of rats under short day (light/dark 8:16) and long day (light/dark 16:8) conditions. The temporal phasing in the AA-NAT transcript amount between the retina and the pineal gland is retained under constant darkness suggesting that the intrinsic self-cycling clock of the retina oscillates in a phase-advanced manner with respect to the self-cycling clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which controls the pineal gland. We therefore conclude that daily rhythms in gene expression in the retina are phase-advanced with respect to the pineal gland, and that the same temporal relationship appears to be valid for the self-cycling clocks influencing the tissues..  

The circadian signaling molecule, melatonin, is secreted into the circulation from the pineal gland, and is also produced within specific ocular cells such as retinal photoreceptors, ciliary epithelial cells, and perhaps cells of the lens.  

We quantified TRbeta2 mRNA in retina, pineal gland, and the major control levels of the HPT axis - brain, pituitary, and thyroid gland - at day 18 of incubation, and found the most abundant mRNA content in retina and pituitary.  

It was investigated the influence of pineal gland's peptides (epithalamin, epithalon) and indols (melatonin) on the aging changes of circannual rhythms of stromal cells-precurcors (CFC-F), granulocyte-macrophage cells-precurcors (CFC-GM), CD4+, Mac-1+ and CD19+-cells amount in bone marrow of mice CBA.  

A study of pineal gland peptides effect on morphology and functions of the pancreas in the model of premature ageing in rats was performed with respect to the need in methods for premature ageing prevention. There was registered a geroprotective effect of the pineal gland peptides on pancreas tissue, manifested in the resistance of the latter to the impact of stress factors entailing premature ageing..  

Maximum linear sizes of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri in sagittal, axial and coronar projection were measured in all events; volumes of the organs were calculated on the formula of a ball. It is defined that the volume of pineal gland increases from birth till 17-21 year age, gradually falls till the second mature age and is getting stable in old age. The normative factors of the volume of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri for 8 age groups are determined. "Brain sand" and false cysts in pineal gland can be observed in all age groups. The petrification degree of pineal gland, as of computer tomography, varies from 30 to 277 ed. For the factor of pineal gland volume and factor of cysts frequency in pineal gland a puberty "collapse" is typical, mainly in men..  

The effect of melatonin, a major secretory product of the pineal gland, on endometriosis was examined in preventive and therapeutic models in mice.  

In order to evaluate the perception and utilization of moonlight by the fish, the present study aimed to clone and characterize Period2 (Per2), a light-inducible clock gene in lower vertebrates, and to examine daily variations in rabbitfish Per2 (rfPer2) expression as well as the effect of light and moonlight on its expression in the pineal gland. The rfPer2 expression in the pineal gland exhibited a daily variation with an increase during daytime. Exposing the fish to light during nighttime resulted in a rapid increase of its expression in the pineal gland, while the level was decreased by intercepting light during daytime.  

The pineal gland expresses vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2), which are thought to transport glutamate into synaptic-like microvesicles in the pinealocytes. Recently, we reported that the rat pineal gland also expresses VGLUT1v which is a novel variant of VGLUT1 during the perinatal period.  

Transcranial sonography (TCS) has never been used in the evaluation of morphology of pineal gland. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of TCS to distinguish normal from cystic pineal gland and to correlate its size with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the first examination and during follow-up. All 14 pineal gland cysts (PGC) seen on MRI were detected by both observers using TCS. No statistically significant difference has been found between: PGC size measured by first and second observer by TCS (P = 0.425), PGC size measured by TCS and MRI (first observer, P = 0.353; second observer, P = 0.425), size of the pineal gland measured by TCS and MRI in control group (first observer, P = 0.497; second observer, P = 0.370) or interobserver variability in control group (P = 0.373).  

Melatonin, a molecule produced in the pineal gland and retina of vertebrates, plays a major role in day-night circadian rhythms and other physiological processes, including the immune responses.  

Generally it is a definite lesion of the pineal gland or suprasellar region, frequently occurring in the first three decades of life.  

Relationships between the pineal gland and parathyroid glands have yet to be elucidated..  

The pineal gland hormone melatonin regulates several physiological processes including circadian rhythm and also alleviates oxidative stress-induced degenerative diseases.  

There was no clear connection of the tumor to the pineal gland.  

Melatonin is a neurohormone synthesized and secreted mainly during the dark period of the circadian cycle by the pineal gland.  

Given the sensitivity of GCT to cytotoxic therapy, a decrease in size of the "normal" pineal gland following chemotherapy (CHT) could divulge preexisting disease. They defined a > or =50% reduction in volume of the pineal gland as a substantial decrease suspicious for preexisting occult disease. pineal gland volumes could be determined for 12 of 15 patients with GCT and 7 of 11 patients with medulloblastoma. Noting changes in the "normal" pineal gland following CHT may indicate disease. If the intent is to deliver RT to all areas of initial disease and this phenomenon can be demonstrated on a larger scale, inclusion of the pineal should be considered for patients demonstrating a substantial decrease in the size of the pineal gland after CHT..  

The red nucleus, subthalamus, ventral thalamus and pineal gland were also eventually involved.  

Calcium is an important second messenger in the rat pineal gland, as well as cAMP. Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, reduces melatonin synthesis in rat pineal glands in vitro. With the purpose of investigating the mechanisms involved in melatonin synthesis regulation by the L-type calcium channel, we studied the effects of nifedipine on noradrenergic stimulated cultured rat pineal glands. Thus, it seems that the calcium influx through L-type high voltage-activated calcium channels is essential for the full activation of tryptophan hydroxylase leading to melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland..  

Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, is widely distributed in mammalian tissues and exerts its action via two melatonin receptor sub-types, MT(1) and MT(2).  

The neurohormone melatonin is released from the pineal gland in close association with the light-dark cycle.  

BACKGROUND: Melatonin, the primary hormone of the pineal gland, is a known modulator of various physiological processes.  

Melatonin (Mel) is a hormone synthesized mainly by the pineal gland.  

In addition to its widespread actions, melatonin synthesis occurs in widely diverse tissues with its production not being relegated to the pineal gland. This should not be unexpected given that it is present throughout the animal kingdom including species that lack a pineal gland, e.g., insects, and in single cell organisms.  

The goal of this cross-sectional observational study was to assess the possible impact of pineal gland calcification upon the intervertebral disc degeneration and abdominal aorta atherosclerosis in subjects with low back pain, and to investigate the course of these processes with aging. The degree of disc degeneration and calcification rates of aortic wall and pineal gland were independently determined by two radiologists. Both ratio of calcified pineal gland and density of pineal calcification increased progressively with aging. Importantly, there was a positive association between calcification of the pineal gland and degenerative disc disease in X-ray or CT study (r=0.378 and r=0.295, p<0.005 and p<0.01, respectively), as well as between abdominal aorta atherosclerosis and pineal calcification (r=0.634, p<0.001). Our findings suggest that there is a significant interaction between pineal gland calcification and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and also abdominal aorta atherosclerosis.  

The pineal gland hormone melatonin is known to have both anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.  

The shadow response was substantially reduced after surgical removal of the pineal gland from surface fish or cavefish larvae, indicating that it is based on pineal function.  

We show here that in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the nucleus that contains the highest number of 5-HT neurons in the brain, TPH1 mRNA reveals a low level of expression but is detectable both by quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization whereas in the pineal gland (PiG), TPH1 mRNA is strongly expressed.  

Although BTG2 was expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland in the brain, BTG2 Tg mice had no abnormal circadian behavior.  

In vertebrates melatonin is produced rhythmically in the pinealocytes of the pineal gland, relaying information of the environmental light/dark cycle to the organism.  

Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined mass, with some cystic components, in the region of the pineal gland.  

This study was undertaken to examine the structure, innervation and functional activity of the pineal gland in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and image analysis. It has also shown a progressive reduction of the total area of the pineal gland and the nuclear size of pinealocytes beginning at 4 weeks of induced diabetes. Surprisingly, the immunoreactive intensities and protein amounts of serotonin (5-HT) and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 in the pineal gland were progressively increased from 4 weeks of diabetes. The increase in immunoreactivities in 5-HT and PGP 9.5 and shrinkage of pineal gland in the diabetic rats suggest an inefficient enzyme activity of the pinealocytes.  

The VI was also not fused to the pineal gland or habenula commissure but simply covered these structures. Clear planes exist between the VI and surrounding structures such as the pineal gland.  

Besides the pineal gland, melatonin is also generated in large amounts in the gastrointestinal tract and due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; this indole might serve as local protective endogen preventing the development of acute gastric damage.  

Melatonin, an indolamine mainly produced in the pineal gland, has received a great deal of attention in the last decade because of its oncostatic effects, which are due to its immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, antioxidant and its possible antiangiogenesis properties.  

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), an indole hormone, is the chief secretory product of the pineal gland and is an efficient free radical scavenger and antioxidant, both in vitro and in vivo.  

In contrast, in the pineal gland, the AANAT mRNA is increased and the insulin receptor mRNA is decreased, which indicates a close interrelationship between insulin and melatonin..  

Melatonin, the chief secretory product of the pineal gland, has long been known to modulate hair growth, pigmentation and/or molting in many species, presumably as a key neuroendocrine regulator that couples coat phenotype and function to photoperiod-dependent environmental and reproductive changes. Moreover, HF melatonin production is enhanced by catecholamines (as it classically occurs in the pineal gland).  

Our hypothesis is that the physiological nocturnal peak of melatonin due to pineal gland production may mask the decline of melatonin of possibly extrapineal (immunological) origin during episodes of dermatitis outbreaks.  

Hypoglossal but not facial nerve transection caused the expression of mRNAs for SPI-3 in the pineal gland. The significance of this observation is not known but it indicates that the pineal gland senses injury to some peripheral nerves including the hypoglossal nerve. It will be interesting also to study on the role of pineal gland during peripheral nerve injuries..  

Melatonin, the major product of the pineal gland, has potent_antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and its production is impaired in chronic renal failure.  

In the present review, we put together recent data that show that the pineal gland is a player in bidirectional control of the inflammatory response. In summary, the immune-pineal axis, implicated in the sequential involvement of the melatonin produced by the pineal gland and immune-competent cells, is an integral participant of the innate immune response..  

Primary pineal gland malignancies are uncommon and seldom have papillary architecture.  

The mammalian pineal gland is an important component of the circadian system. In the present study, we examined the expression of roughly 8000 genes in the rat pineal gland as a function of time of day under light-dark (LD) cycles and in constant dark (DD) using oligo DNA microarray technique.  

Melatonin formation from tryptophan via serotonin shows diurnal rhythmicity in the pineal gland, and higher values are observed during the dark phase of an imposed light-dark cycle. The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of tryptophan and its metabolites in pineal gland of normal and hexachlorobenzene-treated rats in order to find alterations potentially related to porphyria cutanea tarda. Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activity also increases by light in pineal gland from hexachlorobenzene-treated rats.  

MRI examination revealed an advanced hypophyseal and pineal gland tumor--germinoma.  

In this report we present two patients with intracranial multiple midline tumours in the suprasellar region and pineal gland.  

Circadian rhythms in mammals are mainly regulated by a core biological clock, located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus; its pacemaker activity is regulated by light and nonphotic modulatory pathways, and the driving mechanisms are serotonergic input from the raphe and the hormone melatonin originating from the pineal gland.  

MT is generated and released by pineal gland and by entero-endocrine (EE) cells located in the GIT. The pattern of MT secretion from the pineal gland is controlled by an endogenous circadian timing system that conveys information about the light/dark cycle to various organs of the body, thereby organizing its seasonal and circadian rhythms.  

The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase. The results demonstrate that insulin (10(- 8)M) potentiated norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPOH) activity in ex vivo incubated pineal glands. When ex vivo incubated pineal glands were synchronized (12h NE-stimulation, followed by 12h incubation in the absence of NE), insulin potentiated NE-mediated melatonin synthesis and arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity. We conclude that insulin potentiates NE-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland, potentially through post-transcriptional events..  

Melatonin, secreted nocturnally by the pineal gland, is an endogenous sleep regulator.  

The internal period of the SCN is roughly 24.5 hours setting to 24 hours by the light-obscurity cycle and the melatonin secretion by the pineal gland.  

In this study, we investigated rhythmic clock and clock-related gene as well as protein expression in the SCN and pineal gland of torpid and normothermic Djungarian hamsters over a 48 h cycle. We clearly demonstrate rhythmic gene expression of Per1, Bmal1 and Avp in the SCN as well as Aa-nat in the pineal gland on a day of torpor.  

The chicken pineal gland possesses the capacity to generate circadian oscillations, is able to synchronize to external light:dark cycles and can generate an hormonal output--melatonin. We examined the light responses of the chicken pineal gland and its effects on melatonin and Per2, Bmal1 and E4bp4 expression in 19-day old embryos and hatchlings during the dark phase, subjective light phase and in constant darkness.  

OBJECTIVE: The pineal gland, through its hormone melatonin, is involved in the mechanisms that regulate the aging process involved in the onset of menopause.  

Melatonin ( N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, aMT) is an indoleamine produced by several organs and tissues including the pineal gland.  

Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed an arachnoid cyst in the area of the pineal gland.  

The functions of melatonin, the hormone of the pineal gland, are of considerable current interest.  

Here we found the expression of two kinds of melanopsin genes in the chicken pineal gland and identified the presence of five isoforms derived from these two genes.  

We investigated the presence of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), hydroxyindol-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), three enzymes involved in melatonin synthesis, and c-myc, a tumoural marker, in 10 PPT, one papillary tumour of the pineal region (PTPR), cell cultures derived from four PPTs and from three other tumours of the pineal region, and in normal pineal gland.  

On sexually matured male rabbits of Shinhilla breed kept in round-the-clock illumination within 5 months, dynamic of changes of structure of pineal gland was investigated. Round-the-clock illumination should be considered as the factor promoting accelerated aging of pineal gland..  

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