Paraventricular Nucleus Of Hypothalamus


CRF in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and CRF in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are involved in the regulation of stress responses, and gender differences in CRF mRNA expression in these regions in response to various stressors are controversial.  

In the hypothalamus, PPARgamma immunoreactivity was observed in a majority of neurons in the arcuate (including both agouti-related protein (AgRP)- and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-containing cells) and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, and was also present in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic area, and in TH-containing neurons in the VTA, but was not expressed in the NTS.  

Within the HPA, neurons in the medial parvocellular region of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus integrate excitatory and inhibitory signals triggering secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the main secretagogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).  

In the present study we examined the effects of intermittent chemoreflex activation in awake rats on Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in various subnuclei of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), as well as in identified neurosecretory preautonomic PVN neurons.  

AVT immunoreactive (AVT-ir) cell numbers were counted in the anterior hypothalamus (AH), paraventricular nucleus (PN), posterior hypothalamus (PH), preoptic area (POA), and supra optic nuclei (SON).  

TCDD treatment also increased CRF and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus, respectively, in a dose- and time-dependent manner.  

CART-immunoreactive fibers, but not the cells, were significantly increased in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN).  

The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is an important source of brain oxytocin (OT).  

Food ingestion reduced MC4-R expression in the paraventricular nucleus in naive rats subjected to food restriction and also in sham rats fasted for 48 h.  

2) After OVX, apparently fewer PRV-IR positive cells were found in some nuclei as medial septum nucleus (MSN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), diagonal band nucleus (DBN), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) which have close relation with endocrine activity (P<0.05); and rarely seen in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and lateral preoptic area (LPO) (P<0.01).  

In the paraventricular nucleus, vasopressin-containing neurons expressed P2X(4), P2X(5) and P2X(6) receptors, while oxytocin-containing neurons expressed P2X(4) receptors.  

In Experiment 2, NPK-treated chicks had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the parvicellular division of the paraventricular nucleus and arcuate nucleus. The lateral hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsomedial hypothalamus, periventricular nucleus, magnocellular division of the paraventricular nucleus, and the superchiasmatic nucleus were not affected by NPK treatment. Thus, we conclude that NPK is a regulator of chick appetite and the effects may be mediated directly in the arcuate nucleus and parvicellular division of the paraventricular nucleus..  

Systemic administration of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induces the release of norepinephrine in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus and an increase in expression of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF type 1 receptors.  

Noradrenergic (NA) neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and caudal ventrolateral medulla (VLM) innervate the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to initiate and modulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to interoceptive stress.  

AT(1)-R protein, AT(1)-R mRNA, and AT(1)-R immunoreactivity increased in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and the subfornical organ of rats with ischemia-induced HF compared with sham-operated controls. Phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK also increased in paraventricular nucleus and subfornical organ. A 4-week ICV infusion of the p44/42 MAPK inhibitor PD98059 or the c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125 significantly decreased AT(1)-R protein and AT(1)-R immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus and subfornical organ, but the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. In untreated HF rats 4 weeks after coronary ligation, a 3-hour ICV infusion of PD98059, SP600125, or losartan reduced AT(1)-R mRNA in paraventricular nucleus and subfornical organ.  

NTS catecholaminergic neurons relay visceral gastrointestinal signals to both the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), where these signals are integrated into autonomic and hormonal responses regulating food intake.  

We report that expression of the immediate early gene (IEG) FosB is increased in medial hypothalamic nuclei, anterior hypothalamus, and posterior paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (THPVP) following RH. We identified the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a key autonomic output site, among the regions expressing FosB.  

0.4%) and paraventricular nucleus (Pa; 10.5% vs.  

Increased synthesis of CRF in CeA amplified CRF and arginine vasopressin peptide concentration in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and decreased glucocorticoid negative feedback, both markers associated with the pathophysiology of depression.  

In addition, functional changes in the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus under AVP secretion-stimulated conditions were examined immunohistologically.  

High testosterone replacement decreased plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) Fos responses to restraint exposure in sham- but not in MPN-lesioned animals.  

Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of NMS induced cFos expression in the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus.  

Immunohistochemistry reveals that in the caudal VTA oxytocin-containing axons/fibres (originating from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) contact cell bodies of mesolimbic dopaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase-positive) neurons containing both NO synthase and guanylate cyclase.  

It has been demonstrated by neuroanatomy that presympathetic neurons receive projections from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the rostral ventrolateral medulla.  

Stress responses are controlled in large part by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, which contains three functionally distinct neural populations that modulate multiple stress effectors: (1) hypophysiotrophic PVN neurons that directly control the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis; (2) magnocellular neurons and their secreted neurohypophysial peptides; and (3) brainstem and spinal cord projecting neurons that regulate autonomic function.  

Thus, this review aims to discuss neuroanatomical proof, neuromodulator secretory profiles in the hypothalamus and behavioural pharmacological evidence which support a dopamine-oxytocin link in three hypothalamic nuclei that have been implicated in sexual behaviour, namely the medial preoptic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus (PVN).  

This functional profile of the BSTm AVT neurons is quite distinct from that of hypothalamic AVT/AVP neurons, particularly those of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which are classically stress-responsive.  

RESULTS: The DNMT gene transcripts' expression was altered in several brains regions of suicides, including frontopolar cortex, amygdala, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

Corticosteroid receptors in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary were measured, as well as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and adrenal enzymes in the paraventricular nucleus, pituitary and adrenal cortex, respectively, by in situ hybridization and Western blot.  

Results of immunohistochemistry showed that the integral grey values (IGV) of PKA of paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of hypothalamus in CCI + EA 2 w group were significantly lower than those in normal control and CCI + EA 2 d groups (P<0.05).  

We compared the immunoreactivity and numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive neurons and neuropil in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus between the seizure sensitive (SS) and seizure resistant (SR) gerbils.  

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the parvocellular neurosecretory neurones of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus governs neuroendocrine stress cascade and is the major target of the negative feedback effect of corticosteroids. Forskolin-stimulated CRH mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus were also inhibited by CORT or DEX in the presence and in the absence of TTX.  

Using an antiserum raised against RFRP-3, cells were localised to the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus/paraventricular nucleus of the ovine brain and shown to project to the neurosecretory zone of the ovine median eminence, predicating a role for this peptide in the regulation of anterior pituitary gland function.  

The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) has been implicated in several aspects of cardiovascular control.  

c-Fos immunoreactivity was increased in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and ventromedial hypothalamus in both lines after alpha-MSH; however, the magnitude of increase was greater in LWS than in HWS chicks at the PVN (136% vs.  

Throughout most of pregnancy, and in lactation, these changes predominantly reflect reduced drive by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurones in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (pPVN).  

The anti-diuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesised in the magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus.  

In UII-treated rats, Fos-IR in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) was significantly elevated at 160 min, but not 100 min, compared with vehicle.  

Tachykinin neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) is a G-protein (GTP binding protein) -coupled receptor that is heavily expressed by magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN).  

The aims of the present study were to examine the role of CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 in CGRP-induced suppression of LH pulses, and to investigate the effects of CGRP on CRH expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), which have prominent CRH neurone populations that receive dense CGRP innervations.  

We found that ES/IS foot-shock stimulated similar robust increases in plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone concentrations, and medial parvocellular division of the paraventricular nucleus (mpPVN) AVP and CRH hnRNA and c-fos mRNA levels in saline-treated ES/IS rats.  

Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated increased p44/42 MAPK activity in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of HF rats, colocalized with Fra-like activity (indicating chronic neuronal excitation). Intracerebroventricular PD98059 and UO126 reduced Fra-like activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus neurons in HF rats. In confirmatory acute studies, intracerebroventricular Ang II increased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity in baroreceptor-denervated rats and Fra-like immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of neurally intact rats. These data demonstrate that intracellular p44/42 MAPK activity contributes to Ang II-induced neuronal excitation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and augmented sympathetic nerve activity in rats with HF..  

When administered intracerebroventricularly or directly into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, it blocked neuropeptide Y-induced food intake in rats.  

These data imply an influence of stress upon the paraventricular nucleus and the GnIH system that changes over the annual cycle of reproduction..  

GABA(B) receptor function is upregulated in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), but it is unclear whether this upregulation occurs pre- or postsynaptically.  

Very high to high binding is also seen in brain regions associated with cardiovascular regulation (subfornical organ, median, medial and anteroventral preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, solitary tract nucleus), areas that harbor high densities of the AT1 Ang II receptor subtype.  

When these in vitro differentiated neurons were transplanted into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus of an adult rat, they integrated well with the surrounding cells and produced BEP and its precursor gene product, proopiomelanocortin (POMC).  

The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) may be considered as a dynamic mosaic of chemically-specified subgroups of neurons.  

Induction of Fos expression by acute immobilization stress was comparable following CIH in several HPA-modulatory brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala.  

The aim of the present study was to determine the role of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in regulating cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR).  

Significant numbers of double-labeled cells for PRV and MC4-R mRNA were found across the neuroaxis (mean of all brain sites approximately 60%), including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH; approximately 80%).  

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression is increased by angiotensin II (Ang II) within paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons of normotensive rats and acts via its intrinsic thiol protein oxidoreductase (TPOR) to counterregulate the central nervous system-mediated pressor action of Ang II.  

Activation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors produces various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), including increased blood pressure and heart rate.  

These effects may be based on changes in neural activities of relevant brain regions including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), lateral septal nucleus (LS), medial preoptic area (MPOA), the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON), mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD), ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamic (VMH), the medial amygdala (MeA) and central amygdala (CeA)..  

Stereologic analysis showed that there were significantly higher numbers of ERalpha-immunoreactive cells in ob/ob mice irrespective of sex when compared to wild-type (WT) in arcuate nucleus (ARH) and no significant change in ERbeta immunoreactive cell numbers in ARH or paraventricular nucleus (PVN).  

This profile was associated with a decrease in NPY in the paraventricular nucleus (-33%; p<0.005) and in the ventromedial nucleus (-24%; p<0.002).  

As adults, the female offspring of Low LG mothers showed 1) increased sexual receptivity; 2) increased plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone at proestrus; 3) an increased positive-feedback effect of estradiol on both plasma LH levels and gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) expression in the medial preoptic region; and 4) increased estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) expression in the anterioventral paraventricular nucleus, a system that regulates GnRH.  

Pharmacological and genetic studies have suggested that melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) regulates appetite and energy balance.  

Relaxin-3, RXFP3, and RXFP1 are present in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, an area with a well-characterized role in the regulation of energy balance that also modulates reproductive function by providing inputs to hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons.  

In VEH-treated HF rats, compared with VEH-treated SHAM rats, the hypothalamic expression of proinflammatory cytokines was increased, along with key components of the brain RAS (renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin type 1 receptor) and corticotropin-releasing hormone, the central indicator of HPA axis activation, in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus.  

As a starting point for constructing a high-resolution, resliceable computer graphics model for the extraction, quantitative analysis, display, and modeling of neuroanatomical data the outer border and the boundaries of inner divisions and parts of the paraventricular nucleus have been drawn for all 39 serial histological sections prepared for a published reference atlas of the rat brain. This careful parceling revealed three new features of paraventricular nucleus topography: the full rostral extent of the anterior parvicellular part, the caudal end of the medial magnocellular part, and a thin rostrolateral extension of the dorsal medial parvicellular part composed at least in part of neurons expressing corticotropin-releasing hormone. This dataset was then used to create three-dimensional contour and surface models of the paraventricular nucleus, as well as two-dimensional horizontal and sagittal projections of its outer border. The computer graphics files containing raw and smoothed drawings for all 39 serial sections are supplied for use by researchers interested in developing new or better computer graphics analysis tools involving the paraventricular nucleus.  

BACKGROUND: The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) has emerged as one of the most important autonomic control centers in the brain, with neurons playing essential roles in controlling stress, metabolism, growth, reproduction, immune and other more traditional autonomic functions (gastrointestinal, renal and cardiovascular).  

Experiment 4 determined whether EA activates CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalammus. EA induced phosphorylation of NR1, an essential subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor, in CRH-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus.  

In this study, we determined whether upregulation of NF-kappaB in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributed to neurohumoral excitation either directly, or via interaction with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), in heart failure (HF).  

To explore the effect of refeeding on recovery of TRH gene expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and its correlation with the feeding-related neuropeptides in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), c-fos immunoreactivity (IR) in the PVN and ARC 2 h after refeeding and hypothalamic TRH, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) mRNA levels 4, 12, and 24 h after refeeding were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to prolonged fasting.  

Endocannabinoids have been found to mediate the nongenomic glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of the release of corticotrophin-releasing factor within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

The arcuate nucleus and paraventricular nucleus showed a significant reduction in CART mRNA expression in DIO mice compared to DR mice on the HF diet (-19.6%, p=0.019; -26.1%, p=0.003); whilst a profound increase in CART mRNA expression was observed in the dorsomedial nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area (+44.5%, p=0.007; +37.4%, p=0.033).  

Instead, neural morphology is influenced by breeding status, such that breeders, regardless of sex, have more neurons than subordinates in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), and larger overall volumes of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and medial amygdala (MeA).  

In the forebrain we found intense Ngb expression in neurones in the piriform cortex, the central and medial amygdala, the medial preoptic area, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, the perifornical nucleus, the lateral hypothalamus.  

Our previous study demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) protects against gastric ischemia-reperfusion (GI-R) injury, but it is still unknown whether angiotensin II (Ang II) in the PVN plays a role in the development of GI-R.  

Similar habituation was observed in the expression of c-fos mRNA, corticotropin-releasing hormone hnRNA, and phospho-CREB and phospho-ERK proteins in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of SD rats, but not in the F344 rats.  

After central NPS treatment, there was increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus in HWS but not LWS chicks.  

These two neuroendocrine cell populations are closely situated in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and are targets of neuronal afferent pathways that convey important signals for adapting the neurosecretory activity of CRH and TRH neurones to actual demands.  

Moreover, at the neural level, DMI treatment led to a decrease in FST-induced c-fos messenger RNA levels in medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in LR but not HR animals.  

The regional expression of the Y-linked paralogue Uty (ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat gene on Y chromosome) was somewhat distinct from that of Utx, specifically in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (high Uty) and the amygdala (high Utx), implying that the two paralogues may be differentially regulated.  

Hyperactivity of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is a prominent feature in depression and may be important in the etiology of this disease.  

When corticotropin-releasing factor was given at 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 nmol/animal intracerebroventricularly, it dose-dependently increased noradrenaline release but not adrenaline release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. In addition, the corticotropin-releasing factor-induced elevation of noradrenaline release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and plasma corticosterone were abolished by hexamethonium, a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, at 1.8 micromol/animal, intracerebroventricularly, and alpha-conotoxin MII, a potent alpha(3)beta(2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, at 30 nmol/animal, i.c.v. These results suggest that centrally administered corticotrophin-releasing factor elevates plasma corticosterone by the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptor and alpha(3) subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (probably alpha(3)beta(2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) mediated activation of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons projecting to the paraventricular nucleus in rats..  

AVP mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus was increased, whereas hippocampal MR mRNA was decreased in 11-d diabetic animals. GR and CRH mRNAs remained unchanged in hippocampus and paraventricular nucleus of diabetic mice at all time points studied.  

In the present studies, we localized the anxiolytic effect of OT by bilateral microinfusion of OT (0.01 nmol/0.5 microL) into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in male rats using both the elevated plus-maze and the light-dark box.  

However, only some double-labelled neurons were found in other hypothalamic nuclei with abundant CTB-positive neurons, such as the paraventricular nucleus, perifornical area and H1 Forel field.  

As adults, neonatal GDX rats showed higher levels of plasma corticosterone and Fos activation in medial parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus under basal conditions and during 30 min of restraint exposure. In stressed and unstressed animals, the number of androgen receptors and arginine vasopressin-expressing neurons in both of these nuclei correlated negatively with corticosterone concentrations in plasma and Fos levels in the paraventricular nucleus.  

GR-immunoreactive (GR-ir) cells were widely distributed, with the highest densities in the medial pallium (mp; homolog of the mammalian hippocampus), accumbens, anterior preoptic area (POA; homolog of the mammalian paraventricular nucleus), Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum, and rostral anterior pituitary gland (location of corticotropes).  

The numbers of immunoreactive vasopressin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in R6/2 mice were significantly decreased from 8 weeks of age, suggesting that the change in drinking behaviour may be the result of hypothalamic dysfunction.  

We have tested the significance of CRF and Ucn1 in adaptation to chronic psychosocial stress in male tree shrews exposed for 35 days to daily psychosocial conflict, by performing semi-quantitative immunocytochemistry for CRF in the parvocellular hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (pPVN), extended amygdala, viz.  

Viral infection of brain nuclei (dorsal vagal nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, caudal raphe nuclei, A5 cell group, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus) from the left adrenal was more severe than that from the right organ.  

Retrograde labeling from the nPGi was prominent in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), posterior hypothalamus, precommissural nucleus, deep mesencephalic nucleus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of both sexes.  

These include: the medial preoptic nucleus; median and lateral preoptic area; medial division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis; paraventricular nucleus; central nucleus of the amygdala; dorsal hypothalamic area/dorsomedial hypothalamus; lateral hypothalamic area; lateral, ventrolateral and dorsomedial divisions of the periaqueductal grey; dorsal raphe nuclei; parabrachial nuclei; K├Âlliker-Fuse nucleus; intertrigeminal region; rostral ventrolateral medulla; lateral parafacial region; and the ventral respiratory group.  

We hypothesized that ExT would normalize the augmented glutamatergic mechanisms mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) that occur with HF.  

Lesions of the BSTpm increased novel stressor-induced plasma ACTH and corticosterone secretion and enhanced c-fos mRNA induction in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN).  

Besides its action as the most important ACTH secretagogue, corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), synthesized in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), is also involved in the control of food intake.  

In the hypothalamus of juvenile and middle-aged rats that were raised in control (10 pups) or FR litters (20 pups), gene expression was investigated for neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC); CRH and TRH in the paraventricular nucleus; and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area. These results suggest that in neonatal rats, FR already triggers the ARC, and to a lesser extent the lateral hypothalamic area, but not the paraventricular nucleus, to increase expression of orexigenic relative to anorexigenic peptides.  

There was an increase in CRF-immunoreactivity (IR) (p<0.05), and an increased co-localisation of c-Fos and CRF (p<0.05) following stress, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of maternally separated female rats only.  

TRH-immunoreactive (ir) cell somata and preproTRH mRNA expression were found to be widely distributed throughout the medial hypothalamus, with particular clusters in the paraventricular nucleus, the medial preoptic area and periventricular nucleus, and in the dorsomedial hypothalamus extending into the lateral hypothalamic area.  

Arginine vasopressin and corticotrophin-releasing hormone synthesised and released from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus are the prime mediators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress.  

PFOA decreased gastric emptying and increased the expression level of the gene encoding urocortin 1 in the hypothalamus and the immunoreaction for urocortin 1 in the paraventricular nucleus.  

OBJECTIVE: To study the changes in the plasticity of the neurons and astrocytes in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus of rats exposed to a humid and hot environment.  

pretreatment of beta-endorphin mainly occurred in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN).  

Moreover, an increase in the numbers of alpha-MSH positively immunostained neural cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), as well as a significant decrease in the numbers of neural cells positively immunostained for MC4-R in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), without changes in lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), were observed.  

RESULTS: Here we report that in arrhythmic homozygous Per1/2 double-mutant mice there is still a diurnal peak in in vitro AVP release from the SCN similar to that of wildtypes but distinctively different from the release pattern from the paraventricular nucleus.  

Acute central lipoprivation suppresses pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) release and increases blood glucose levels through noradrenergic input to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in female rats.  

To identify underlying mechanisms, we investigated (1) the effects of chronic nicotine SA on the coexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNAs, the primary hypothalamic neuropeptides regulating ACTH release, in the parvocellular division of paraventricular nucleus (pcPVN), and (2) mFSS-induced activation of these neurons during nicotine SA.  

In patch-clamp electrophysiology experiments the effect of ghrelin was assessed on the synaptic inputs in parvocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, with or without the pre-administration of a CB1 antagonist or of cannabinoid synthesis inhibitors. Electrophysiology studies showed that ghrelin can inhibit the excitatory inputs on the parvocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus, and that this effect is abolished by administration of a CB1 antagonist or an inhibitor of the DAG lipase, the enzyme responsible for 2-AG synthesis.  

The paraventricular nucleus complex (Pa) is a component of central neural circuitry that regulates several homeostatic variables. The paraventricular nucleus is composed of magnocellular neurons that project to the posterior pituitary and parvicellular neurons that project to numerous sites in the central nervous system. According to the revised prosomeric model, the paraventricular nucleus is located caudal to the eye stalk along the rostrocaudal dimension of the dorsal hypothalamic alar plate. Caudally, the paraventricular nucleus abuts the prethalamus (prosomere 3), and the entire complex is flanked ventrally and dorsally by Dlx5-expressing domains of the alar plate. The homeodomain transcription factor Orthopedia (Otp) is expressed in several separate hypothalamic sites: the paraventricular nucleus, perimammillary region and arcuate nucleus. In all cases, Otp-positive cells in the paraventricular nucleus were excluded from Dlx5-expressing adjacent domains. Expression in the medial amygdala appears to be continuous with the Otp-expressing paraventricular nucleus complex.  

The stimulatory action of DL-FEN on c-fos immunoreactivity within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus was also decreased in low-protein-fed rats.  

To determine whether corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) coexists with endothelin-1 (ET-1) in rat paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ET-1 expression and its regulation by CRH and CRHR1 under hypoxia, rats were exposed to simulated continuous hypoxia at 5 km altitude (CH5km, equal to 10.8% O(2)) in a hypobaric chamber for 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 or 25 days.  

The number of Fos positive neurons was determined in the DMH, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ARC, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and in the area postrema (AP) in non-fasted Sprague-Dawley rats in response to intraperitoneally (ip) injected ghrelin (3 nmol/rat) or vehicle (0.15 M NaCl).  

Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that corticotropin-releasing factor- and urocortin-2-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus were activated by IV injection of obestatin.  

The role of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in nociception was investigated in the rat.  

Microdialysis of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) revealed that norepinephrine release in the region was increased by 4V MA administration.  

Prodynorphin mRNA expression was also higher in the breeding season than in the non-breeding season in the caudal preoptic area, paraventricular nucleus and accessory supraoptic nucleus, irrespective of treatment.  

In particular, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is highly expressed by cells of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, where the sympatho-adrenal system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system originate.  

In both vehicle-treated and euhydrated rats, AM2-LI neurons were observed in the hypothalamus and brainstem, including in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, the median preoptic nucleus, the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, the arcuate nucleus, the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the tractus solitarius and the nucleus ambiguus.  

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to four different conditions; free fed control (FC), 48 h of food deprivation (FD), 1 h of refeeding with chow (RF/CW) or with a non-caloric liquid diet following FD (RF/NC) and then sacrificed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the nucleus tractus of solitarius (NTS).  

Disinhibition of the DMH resulted in dramatic increases in local Fos expression and also increased the numbers of Fos-positive neurons in the lateral septal nucleus and in both the parvocellular and magnocellular subdivisions of the paraventricular nucleus, with greater increases ipsilateral to the injection site in the DMH.  

The injections increased the numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive cells in the subfornical organ, median nucleus of preoptic area, organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus.  

Our previous studies have shown that angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) modulate the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR).  

The PFC responds to stress and modulates the response to stress through regulation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) which, in turn, controls sympathoadrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity.  

Contrary to our previous (rat) results, VP administered to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in A.  

The central regulation of the thyroid axis by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) is absolutely required for normal function of the axis.  

RLA-I rats showed enhanced CRF gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, with normal arginin-vasopressin gene expression in both parvocellular and magnocellular regions of the PVN.  

Furthermore, we found TAFA5 mRNA to be highly expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) where it co-localized with vasopressin and oxytocin in magno- and parvocellular neurons.  

In addition, the number of Fos-positive cells along the lamina terminalis, including the OVLT, as well as the supraoptic nucleus and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, was similar between wild-type and TRPV1-/- mice after both acute and chronic osmotic stimulation.  

They are produced by a small group of neurons located in the area of the brain, round the nucleus of the fornix (posterior hypothalamus), in the paraventricular nucleus, the dorsomedial nucleus, the ventromedial hypothalamus, as well as in the lateral hypothalamic region; these are sites that are known to be involved in regulating feeding in mammals.  

c-Fos immunohistochemistry revealed that DMH CCK increased the number of c-Fos positive cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus and retrochiasmatic area as well as in the contralateral DMH.  

We measured plasma ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) levels and neuropeptide mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of Avpr1b knockout (KO) mice and wild-type controls.  

We have reported that an arousal response accompanied by yawning behavior can be evoked by electrical and chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in rats, although the mechanism responsible for the arousal response accompanied by yawning evoked by PVN stimulation is still unknown.  

We studied the influence of arthritis on descending modulation of nociception from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the rat.  

Glutamatergic inputs in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus maintain resting sympathetic vasomotor tone in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).  

Accumulating evidence supports a contribution of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to sympathoexcitation and elevated blood pressure in renovascular hypertension.  

Temporal effects on expression of energy balance genes were restricted to long-form leptin receptor in the arcuate nucleus and ventromedial nucleus, where similar diurnal expression profiles were observed, and melanocortin-4 receptor in the paraventricular nucleus; these effects were only observed in LD hamsters.  

Specific binding was identified in the appetite-regulating arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and the lateral hypothalamic area corresponding to the previously reported distribution pattern of GHS-R mRNA.  

CMS induced anhedonia was not related to mRNA expression differences of the dopamine receptors D(1) and D(2), enkephalin, dynorphin, the NMDA receptor subtype NR2B in the ventral striatum, BDNF expression in the dentate gyrus, nor corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

HF rats also had higher expression of mRNA and protein for angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin type 1 receptors in the hypothalamus, increased reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and superoxide generation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, increased excitation of paraventricular nucleus neurons, and increased plasma norepinephrine. HF rats treated for 4 weeks with intracerebroventricular RU28318 (1 microg/h), a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, had less hypothalamic angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA and protein, less reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-induced superoxide in the paraventricular nucleus, fewer excited paraventricular nucleus neurons, and lower plasma norepinephrine.  

Fascinating studies in rats and mice have shown a dramatic downregulation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) gene expression in hypophysiotropic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons during fasting.  

In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that prolactin mRNA was expressed in the medial preoptic area, periventricular preoptic nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, particularly the ventral region.  

Stereotactically neurotoxic lesion with 5,7-dihydroxy-5-HT in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) or the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) reduced the ACTH and AVP response to stress, indicating an importance of these structures for this response.  

paraventricular nucleus) or stimulatory (e.g. Treatment with corticosterone (CORT) decreased, whereas the corticosteroid synthesis inhibitor metyrapone increased CRF expression in the anterior preoptic area (homolog of the mammalian paraventricular nucleus), as measured by CRF primary transcript, mRNA, and CRF immunoreactivity (ir) (by immunocytochemistry).  

In addition, responses of c-Fos inductions in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to scent of grapefruit oil observed in wild-type mice were not observed in Clock mutant mice.  

Bilateral lesions of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus did not prevent RR-evoked changes.  

To study this, we implanted adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with both a push-pull cannula in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and a catheter in the jugular vein.  

TRH neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), regulate pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT).  

We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus ambiguus (NA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) with c-Fos immunohistochemistry in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats.  

To determine whether the p44/p42 MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling pathway is involved in the activation of CRH-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, Sprague Dawley rats were injected with LPS, and studied after 2, 6, 9, and 12 h.  

GPCR101 mRNA expression showed a similar pattern of expression in the rostral ventromedial parvocellular subdivision of the paraventricular nucleus. In the paraventricular nucleus, although temporal changes in oxytocin mRNA expression were similar to GPCR101, the spatial expression of the two mRNA species was different; in contrast to GPCR101, oxytocin mRNA expression changed in both parvo- and magnocellular neurons during lactation.  

In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PAH), lateral hypothalamic area (LH), paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), locus coeruleus (LC), lateral parabrachial nucleus (Pbl), the complex of the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMX), numbers of neurons expressing c-Fos protein were much higher in test than in control experiments.  

PYY transgenic mice were protected against diet-induced obesity in association with increased body temperature (indicative of increased thermogenesis) and sustained expression of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

Immunohistochemistry revealed Aldo-induced increases in dihydroethidium staining (indicating oxidative stress) and Fra-like activity (indicating neuronal excitation) in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN).  

Ethanol-induced reductions of alpha-MSH immunoreactivity were site-specific and were noted in regions of the hypothalamus and extended amygdala, as well as the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus.  

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is produced in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in response to stress and stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone in the corticotrophs.  

Previous publication has demonstrated that stress induces CRF release in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the release of both CRF and GABA in the amygdala.  

The highest level of activation in hypothalamic structures was seen in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHN) and posterior hypothalamic area (PH) after electrical pain stimulation and in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lateral hypothalamic area level 28 (LHA-28) after i.v.  

The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) are both involved in the acute, hyperphagic effects of NPY.  

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and melanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus, a primary energy homeostatic center in adults, do not fully innervate the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) until the third postnatal week.  

This study was conducted to define the molecular mechanism by which dehydration induces expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN).  

Nesfatin-1 is a newly-discovered satiety peptide found in several nuclei of the hypothalamus, including the paraventricular nucleus. To begin to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying these satiety-inducing actions, we examined the effects of nesfatin-1 on the excitability of neurones in the paraventricular nucleus. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings from rat paraventricular nucleus neurones showed nesfatin-1 to have either hyperpolarizing or depolarising effects on the majority of neurones tested. Consequently, we provide the first evidence that this peptide, which is produced in the paraventricular nucleus, has effects on the membrane potential of a large proportion of different subpopulations of neurones located in this nucleus, and therefore identify nesfatin-1 as a potentially important regulator of paraventricular nucleus output..  

In the present study, we investigated the differential effects of ES or PS on pain behaviors or on c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or arcuate nucleus (ArcN) using electrical footshock-witness model.  

RESULTS: The HU210-induced increase in [ (35)S]GTPgammaS binding observed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of control rats was abolished after chronic treatment with citalopram.  

The two cytokines elicited a comparable decrease in food intake and activated similar numbers of cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), a region that plays a critical role in the regulation of appetite and metabolism (determined via expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos).  

RESULTS: Compared with the control group, 2 h GES resulted in a decrease in the number of ghrelin-immunoreactive (ghrelin-IR) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, 34.8 +/- 1.86 vs 57.2 +/- 2.95, P = 0.02) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON, 51.2 +/- 3.21 vs 82.8 +/- 3.08, P = 0.01); the CCK-immunoreactive (CCK-IR) neurons in the hippocampus were of no changes (7.4 +/- 0.87 vs 6.2 +/- 0.58, P = 0.29).  

The extent of the stress response was evaluated by measuring the expression profile of CRH, CRH-R1 and GR mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and in amygdala, corticosterone levels in serum.  

In this study, we investigated the role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the reflex decrease in renal blood flow that is induced by hyperthermia, as this brain region is known to play a key role in renal function and may contribute to the central pathways underlying thermoregulatory responses.  

In cold-exposed conditions, oxytocin neurons containing c-Fos immunoreactivity existed in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

Post mortem analyses revealed that DHS animals had a loss of oxytocin (OT)-containing cells in the paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus (PVN; p<0.05) as well as an increase in calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP; p<0.05, one tailed) processes in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) on PND 198.  

As for the neuropeptidergic system, ARC neurons secrete orexigenic substances, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP), and anorexigenic peptides such as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART).Other brain areas involved in the control of food intake are located downstream the ARC: among these, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which produces anorexigenic peptides such as thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and oxytocin, the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) and perifornical area (PFA), secreting the orexigenic substances orexin-A (OXA) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH).  

The effect of repeated immobilization stress (RIS) on the expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and types of cells that express IL-1beta in hippocampal CA1 region, striatum and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were investigated in ICR mice.  

Extracellular discharges of neurons within the medial preoptic area, the arcuate nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (AP: 4.0-9.0 mm, R: <1.0 mm, L: <2.0 mm) were recorded by using glass micro-pipettes in anesthetized rats (10% urethane).  

Nesfatin-1, a newly discovered satiety molecule, is located in the hypothalamic nuclei, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON).  

Co-labelling of PRV and CRF was found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the central amygdala.  

Immunohistochemical studies revealed that salusin-beta-LI neurones and fibres were markedly increased in the SON and the magnocellular division of the paraventricular nucleus after chronic osmotic stimuli resulting from salt loading for 5 days and dehydration for 3 days.  

CNS stimulation and control of sexual function primarily originates in the hypothalamus, medial preoptic area, and paraventricular nucleus.  

CVS induced attenuated body weight gain, adrenal hypertrophy, thymic involution, and enhanced CRH mRNA in hypophysiotrophic neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, none of which were affected by anteroventral BST lesions. In the absence of CVS, lesions attenuated the plasma corticosterone and paraventricular nucleus c-fos mRNA responses to the acute restraint stress.  

AIMS: We evaluated the putative alterations of the serotonin transporter (SERT) density in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus of Cloninger type 1 and 2 (early onset, anti-social) alcoholics and controls.  

Glucocorticoids are known to regulate both the noradrenergic and GABAergic inputs to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN).  

Plasma corticosterone and fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and piriform cortex were also measured in the treated animals.  

Oxytocin (OT) is released from the paraventricular nucleus to downstream sites such as the VMHvl to facilitate female sexual behavior and shows characteristics of a prolactin (PRL)-releasing factor.  

In PND21 FR50 animals, we observed strikingly reduced immunoreactive beta-endorphin nerve fibers projecting to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus without affecting NPY projections.  

We have used microarrays to comprehensively describe the transcriptomes of the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the neurointermediate lobe of adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, as well as the PVN of Wistar rats.  

Gal-R2 was expressed in several regions of the hypothalamus (supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus) but not as widely expressed as Gal-R1.  

Both osmotically stimulated peripheral secretion and intra-paraventricular nucleus (PVN) release of AVP were found decreased in LAB animals compared with normal anxiety (NAB) or high anxiety (HAB) controls.  

Intravenous IL-1beta activates corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurones in the parvocellular division of the paraventricular nucleus (pPVN) via noradrenergic (A2 cell group) neurones in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS).  

We previously reported that systemic administration of either full or partial 5-HT1A agonists increases neuroendocrine responses and that tandospirone, an azapirone partial agonist, can activate (phosphorylate) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN).  

To examine differences in the hypothalamic NPY between layer-type and meat-type of chickens, which are two divergent kinds of the domestic chickens in feeding behavior and body weight, we detected mRNA levels of NPY in hypothalamic infundibular nucleus (IN), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of these two types of chickens using one-step real time RT-PCR.  

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a peptide neurotransmitter with high numbers of cell bodies found in limbic regions of the rat brain including the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) as well as in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN).  

Acute VNS significantly increased c-Fos staining in the nucleus of the solitary tract, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, parabrachial nucleus, ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and locus coeruleus but not in the cingulate cortex or dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN).  

We report that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of leptin, concomitant with inhibiting AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), activates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the key regulatory enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the hypothalamus.  

the hypothalamic SON (supraoptic nucleus) and PVN (paraventricular nucleus).  

Electrical stimulation of the medial part of the nucleus evoked marked excitatory reactions in neurons in the medial part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the rostral part of the lateral hypothalamic area. A series of histochemical studies following activation of the central nucleus demonstrated increases in the quantity and optical densities of NADP diaphorase (NADP-d)-positive neurons in the parvocellular zone of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the medial part of the lateral hypothalamic area.  

Prolactin (PRL) induces the expression of orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) through the activation of JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) leading to hyperphagia.  

CRF, produced in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in response to stress, is secreted into the pituitary portal circulation, resulting in the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the anterior pituitary.  

Dysregulation of neuronal crh expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus correlates with some forms of depression, and amygdalar crh expression may modulate levels of anxiety.  

The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) which plays a key role in controlling pituitary hormone secretion has been suggested to be a central target for adiponectin actions.  

AVP expression levels in the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus were found to be significantly higher in 12 week-old ZDF rats than in 12 week-old ZLC rats and than in 4 week-old rats by immunostaining and western blotting.  

We measured neuronal activation in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMN) of the hypothalamus, and nucleus dorsomedialis posterior thalami (DMP) of the thalamus.  

In contrast to the very low basal expression of c-fos, fra-2 basal expression was moderately high throughout cortex and some subcortical structures, including prominent basal expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN).  

METHODS: In situ hybridization and quantitative image analysis was used to measure mRNAs coding for CRH in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and thalamic center median-subfascicular complex (CM-Sf).  

Pair housing also increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus.  

Galanin concentrations were significantly lower in di/di rats than in di/+ rats in the paraventricular nucleus (-56%; P<0.001), but not in the arcuate nucleus. Given that galanin mRNA is overexpressed in the paraventricular nucleus of Brattleboro rats, these data are consistent with increased release of the peptide.  


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