Nucleus Of Brachium Of Inferior Colliculus

Measurements of CRs revealed that arsenic-exposed offspring have significantly lower levels of these receptors in the nucleus than controls.  

Approximately 8% of breast cancers show increased copy numbers of chromosome 17 centromere (CEP17) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (ie average CEP17 >3.0 per nucleus).  

Information from the vestibular nuclei ascending through the brainstem to the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei (NIII, NIV), the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC), the pretectum, or thalamus, is thought to be distributed in at least five different pathways. The ATD carries mostly ipsilateral otolithic information to the medial and inferior recti subgroups in NIII and the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.  

The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is part of the cholinergic arm of the reticular activating system, which is mostly active during waking and REM sleep.  

While most accounts of diencephalic amnesia emphasize the functional importance of the hippocampal projections to the mammillary bodies, the present study tested the importance of the other major input to the mammillary bodies, the projections from the ventral tegmental nucleus of Gudden (VTNg). In contrast, the same rats with ventral tegmental nucleus lesions performed normally on two control tasks: the acquisition and subsequent reversal of an egocentric discrimination task and a visually cued task in the water maze.  

METHODS: Twenty healthy controls and 25 PD patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation were investigated in different treatment conditions using three different tapping paradigms: (1) the standard tapping task of the CAPSIT-PD-protocol; (2) alternate pressing of two buttons on the new board by moving the arm at the elbow and shoulder (proximal tapping), and (3) alternate pressing of two closely collocated buttons on the new board by moving only the index finger (distal tapping) for 30 s. The treatment effects of high frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or medication alone were comparable, whereas the combined treatment induced significantly higher tapping scores.  

In the current studies we locally infused acute and chronic doses of MLA and DHbetaE into the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and tested memory function on a 16-arm radial maze. Chronic DHbetaE infusions into the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus also improved working memory. Nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptors in the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus appear to play an opposite role with regard to working memory than those in the hippocampus and amygdala.  

The number of restraint-stress-evoked c-Fos-positive cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in TgActbetaE mice was significantly decreased compared with that in wild-type mice.  

K(Ca)2.2 levels were transiently reduced in the dorsal CA fields of the hippocampus, whereas K(Ca)2.3 mRNA levels were reduced in the dorsal and ventral CA fields of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and basolateral amygdaloid nucleus in conditioned rats, during early stages of learning.  

In mice, however, additional differential c-Fos response was observed in subregions of the amygdala, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, midbrain and pons.  

In the nucleus of many types of normal cells, BRCA1 protein interacts with several other proteins to mend strand breaks in DNA.  

In budding yeast and certain mammalian cells, the retrograde movement of mature tRNAs from cytoplasm to nucleus serves as a mechanism for the surveillance system within the nucleus to continue monitoring the integrity of tRNAs.  

We show that neurons in the recently identified GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which receive a major LHb input, project heavily to midbrain dopamine neurons, and show phasic activations and/or Fos induction after aversive stimuli (footshocks, shock-predictive cues, food deprivation, or reward omission) and inhibitions after rewards or reward-predictive stimuli.  

RESULTS: Stereotaxic ICV infusion of colchicine significantly impaired the RAM performance together with decrease in norepinephrine (NE) level in cerebral cortex (CC), hippocampus (HC) and caudate nucleus (CN).  

In an attempt to design novel 5-HT(1A) agonists/partial agonists, based on an arylpiperazine nucleus, a series of N-{4-[ 4-(aryl)piperazine-1-yl]-phenyl}-amine derivatives were synthesized and biologically tested.  

Nuclear functions are strongly dependent on the three-dimensional organization of the interphase nucleus. Given the importance of telomeres in the behaviour and stability of chromosomes, we have investigated the architecture of the human nucleus from the telomere perspective by 3D-FISH and laser confocal microscopy. Thus, chromosome positioning in metaphase spreads is tightly connected to the three-dimensional architecture of the interphase nucleus..  

Prenatal MDMA exposure results in increased dopaminergic fiber density in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and nucleus accumbens of young rats.  

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and the dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are part of a neural system that is critically involved in making decisions on how much effort to invest for rewards.  

By using immunohistochemical immediate early gene (IEG) mapping we investigated whether CSC housing causes alterations in neuronal activation patterns in limbic areas including the amygdala, hippocampus, septum and the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). While CSC housing increased basal Zif-268 expression in the nucleus accumbens shell compared to SHC, IEG responses to subsequent open arm (OA) exposure were attenuated in the ventral and intermediate sub-regions of the lateral septum, parvocellular PVN and the dorsal CA3 region of the hippocampus of CSC compared with SHC mice.  

The pedunculopontine nucleus is composed of cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurones and is located in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum. Evidence suggests that the nucleus plays a role in the production and control of movement. The nucleus has dense interconnections with the basal ganglia, as well as with other areas of the brain associated with motor control. Electrical stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus in the decerebrate cat or rat produces organized locomotor movements. Physiological studies show that the pedunculopontine nucleus modulates its activity in response to locomotion, as well as voluntary arm and eye movements. Degeneration of the pedunculopontine nucleus is seen in post-mortem brains in humans with Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonian syndromes. In animal models of Parkinson's disease, metabolic changes are seen in the pedunculopontine nucleus, and chemical inhibition or mechanical disruption of the nucleus can produce an akinetic state in animals and man. In this paper we review the literature in support of the suggestion that some of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease are caused by dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus. In accordance with this view, direct stimulation of the nucleus can ameliorate some symptoms of the disease, as demonstrated in both experimental animals and man..  

STUDY OBJECTIVES: We recorded the effects of administration of the stimulant modafinil on the amplitude of the sleep state-dependent auditory P13 evoked potential in freely moving rats, a measure of arousal thought to be generated by the cholinergic arm of the reticular activating system, specifically the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN).  

Genotype influenced c-Fos responses to arm exposures in 6 of the 51 activated regions: the cingulate cortex, barrel field of the primary somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, dorsal lateral septum, amygdala and lateral periaqueductal gray.  

It has been proposed that there is an "apparent monosynaptic" connection between gastric vagal afferent nerve terminals and inhibitory projection neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and that two efferent parallel pathways from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) influence peripheral organs associated with these reflexes (6). To test the validity of a direct connection of vagal afferent terminals (known to release l-glutamate) directly impacting second-order projection neurons, we evaluated the effect of GABA(A) receptor blockade in the area of the medial subnucleus of the tractus solitarius (mNTS) on gastric motility.  

To gain more information on this supraspinal influence, we measured arm and thigh kinematics during walking in 10 Parkinson's disease patients, under four conditions: (i) baseline (no treatment), (ii) therapeutic stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), (iii)L-DOPA medication and (iv) combined STN stimulation and L-DOPA.  

Here, we investigated the effect of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation on levodopa-resistant axial and appendicular postural impairment in PD.  

This includes a presence in synaptic inputs to central autonomic structures such as the central amygdalar nucleus, which is implicated as a stress-related site of CRF action, but lacks cellular CRFR1 expression.  

LFR encodes a protein with three putative ARM-repeat domains that tends to cluster in the nucleus as discrete rounded speckles.  

CONCLUSION: Optimal electrode location for thalamic DBS in essential tremor corresponds to the anterior margin of the ventralis intermedius nucleus.  

Three different excitatory tracts could be involved in the transmission of upward vestibular eye movement (VEM) signals and upward eye position (EP) signals to the oculomotor nucleus (III): the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), the brachium conjunctivum (BC), and the crossing ventral tegmental tract (CVTT). The involvement of the MLF pathway originating in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) in this transmission is experimentally and clinically well established whereas a role of the BC appears to be questionable. Furthermore, there is now accumulating evidence that the CVTT pathway emerging from the superior vestibular nucleus (SVN) also plays an important role in the mediation of excitatory upward EP and VEM signals to the III.  

Most karyophilic proteins are transported into the nucleus through the importin-mediated pathway. Moreover, endogenous NPI-1 subfamily was dominantly localized in the nuclei of H(2)O(2)-treated HeLa cells, suggesting that NPI-1 subfamily accumulates in the nucleus in response to oxidative stress, like importin alpha1/Rch1..  

Upon binding of Wg to its receptors, the "degradation complex" is inhibited; Armadillo is stabilised and enters the nucleus to transcribe targets.  

We assessed the anatomical specificity of muscimol intra-MSDB self-administration by injecting this molecule into the nucleus accumbens (NAc).  

Immunohistochemical localization of CB(1) and TRPV1 receptors was observed in mouse prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus.  

One of the candidates identified was Drosha (RNASEN), a gene that is required in the first step of microRNA (miRNA) processing in the nucleus.  

This study determined the effects of mGluR7 and mGluR8 activation in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) on nocifensive and affective pain responses and on pain-related anxiety-like behavior of adult rats.  

Previous studies have demonstrated that corticopetal cholinergic lesions applied to the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and substantia innominata (NBM/SI) attenuate operant suppression induced by aversive events.  

In addition, neurochemical indices were assessed with tissue homogenization and HPLC in the frontal cortex, striatum, and nucleus accumbens of neonatal and adult rats after neonatal 6-OHDA lesions. The frontal cortical dopamine depletion increased 5-HT and norepinephrine levels in the nucleus accumbens.  

This protein was localized in the cytosol and nucleus of the parasite as studied by confocal microscopy.  

In the present study, the influence of opioidergic system of the ventral hippocampus, the nucleus accumbens or the central amygdala on anxiety-related behaviour was investigated in rats. Bilateral microinjection of different doses of morphine (2.5, 5 and 7.5 microg/rat) into the ventral hippocampus or the nucleus accumbens increased the percentage of open arm time (%OAT) and open arm entries (%OAE) but not locomotor activity, indicating an anxiolytic response. On the other hand, microinjection of a dose of naloxone into the ventral hippocampus (2 microg/rat) or the nucleus accumbens (1 microg/rat) increased open arm time (%OAT), but not open arm entry (%OAE) which may indicate an anxiolytic effect. A dose of the antagonist (1 microg/rat) also reduced the morphine response (2.5 microg/rat) when injected in the nucleus accumbens. In conclusion, it seems that the opioidergic system in the ventral hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens are involved in anxiety-related behaviors and the ventral hippocampus may be the main site of action of the anxiolytic properties of morphine..  

Furthermore, we tested the effect of local intra-cerebral micro-infusions of WIN into the nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal (dHIP) and ventral (vHIP) hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC).  

Although a brain CT did not detect any abnormal density areas, we suspected that the patient had cerebral infarction of the basal ganglia or the parietal lobe on the left side, or of the subthalamic nucleus on the right side because choreic involuntary movements were more prominent on the right side.  

Biochemical fractionation and fluorescent microscopy of green fluorescent protein-tagged SPMV CP demonstrated that the non-cytosolic SPMV CP is associated with the cell wall, the nucleus and other membranous organelles. That SPMV CP is found both in the nucleus and the cell wall suggests its involvement in viral nuclear import and cell-to-cell transport..  

A high density of calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive perikarya was found in the superior colliculus, the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, the trochlear nucleus, the lateral division of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the motor trigeminal nucleus, the facial nucleus, the pons reticular formation, the retrofacial nucleus, the rostral hypoglossal nucleus, and in the motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, whereas a high density of fibers containing calcitonin gene-related peptide was observed in the lateral division of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the parvocellular division of the alaminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, the external cuneate nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the laminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, and in the area postrema.  

OBJECTIVE: High-frequency subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an established treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). CONCLUSION: Using a noninvasive, simple, and sensitive electronic recording method of intraoperative motor symptom registration, we were able to supplement short-term clinical observation by objectively quantifying the characteristics of tremor and finger tapping in response to subthalamic nucleus deep brain macrostimulation..  

Instrument-based studies for movement alteration detection after simultaneous ablation of the globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus of these two patients showed greater sensitivity than clinical evaluation alone.  

OBJECTIVE : To assess the differential effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on proximal and distal muscle groups of the upper limb in Parkinson's disease. METHODS : Eight parkinsonian subjects with chronic bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus performed index finger tapping (differentially drawing upon distal arm muscles), horizontal pointing (differentially drawing upon proximal arm muscles) and a complex reach-to-grasp task with cubes of different sizes, which involved both proximal and distal arm muscles. Subjects were investigated in two clinical conditions: on and off subthalamic nucleus stimulation. RESULTS : Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improved the UPDRS motor subscore (68 %). Bradykinesia of index finger tapping and horizontal pointing were equally improved by subthalamic nucleus stimulation. CONCLUSION : The data suggest that bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves bradykinesia of both distal and proximal muscles of the arm and hand in Parkinson's disease; however, dependent upon task complexity proximal and distal movement components may be affected differentially. Kinematic motion analysis is an efficient tool to objectively evaluate the beneficial effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation on dexterity in Parkinson's disease..  

BACKGROUND: Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor function in Parkinson disease (PD).  

Microdialysis revealed a concomitant increase in extracellular acetylcholine and decrease in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell.  

Hop was predominantly cytoplasmic, but translocated to the nucleus in response to heat shock.  

The site-directed beta-catenin mutant (NES2(-)), which could interact with CRM1, but not with APC, still retained its ability to export from the nucleus and its transactivational activity. These results strongly suggest that the CRM1-mediated pathway is involved in the efficient transport of nuclear beta-catenin in the nucleus of cells..  

ChAT-immunoreactive (IR) cells comprise several prominent groups, including the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and parabigeminal nucleus, as well as the cranial nerve somatic motor and parasympathetic nuclei. Among auditory nuclei, the majority of ChAT-IR cells are in the superior olive, particularly in and around the lateral superior olive, the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body and the superior paraolivary nucleus. A discrete group of ChAT-IR cells is located in the sagulum, and additional cells are scattered in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus. A group of ChAT-IR cells lies dorsal to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. A few ChAT-IR cells are found in the cochlear nucleus and the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

This study compared the influences of mu-opioid receptor (MOR) activation in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) on unconditioned fear or anxiety-like responses in two models, the elevated plus maze, and the defensive burying test.  

This study explored the putative role of the principal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurones that project to the hippocampus from the median raphe nucleus in this response to an aversive environment by lesioning the 5-HT fibres that project through the fornix/fimbria and cingulum bundles. It is concluded that exposure to an explicitly aversive environment elicits a brief stimulation of the 5-HT neurones that project to the hippocampus from the median raphe nucleus and that this stimulation inhibits the initial burst of exploratory activity that is observed in animals placed in a less aversive novel environment..  

In contrast, infusions of muscimol into the anterior hypothalamic nucleus suppressed burying without affecting rats' open-arm avoidance.  

The intercalated islands are clusters of glutamate-responsive GABAergic neurons rich in cholecystokinin (CCK)-2 receptors which control the trafficking of nerve impulses from the cerebral cortex to the central nucleus of amygdala. It is suggested that CCK modulates glutamate-GABA mechanisms by acting on CCK-2 receptors via volume transmission occurring at the level of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and/or by synaptic or perisynaptic volume transmission in the region of the rostrolateral main and paracapsular intercalated islands, resulting in subsequent disinhibition of the central amygdaloid nucleus and anxiety or panic-like behaviour..  

BACKGROUND: We present the method and results of an original technique to implant electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to treat Parkinson's disease, based on adaptations of the Fisher ZD stereotactic frame.  

This study investigated the effect of the AMPA receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) microinjected into the core and shell sub-regions of the accumbens nucleus (Acb), on the level of fear/anxiety and emotional learning, in female rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze (EPM), an animal model of anxiety.  

The effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation and L-dopa administration on the arm and leg swing movements associated with overground walking were studied in a group of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD).  

The mechanism by which intracellular Tbeta4 induced the PAI-1 gene did not depend upon the N-terminal tetrapeptide AcSDKP and depended only partially on its ability to bind G-actin or enter the nucleus.  

Immunohistochemistry revealed KIF14 localization to both nucleus and cytoplasm of tumor cells.  

Internalized BTat is predominantly present in the nucleus, resulting in LTR activation and NF-kappaB induction.  

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has become the therapy of choice for medically intractable Parkinson's Disease.  

Pair housing also increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus.  

To move neurological gene therapy into the clinic in an effective and safe manner, these are the developments needed: novel viral vectors that either display a reduced capacity to stimulate an adaptive immune response or become invisible to the immune system after the delivery of the vector genome to the nucleus of transduced cells, and ways either to steer the immune response away from cytotoxic responses or to induce tolerance to gene therapy products..  

The effects of microinjection of the nitric oxide (NO) precursor l-arginine (l-Arg), the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors N-methyl-l-arginine (l-NAME) and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and the cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) analog 8-Br-cGMP into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) were assessed in rats using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the forced swim test (FST).  

First, the activity was recorded extracellularly from single cardiac vagal motoneurons (CVMs) in the nucleus ambiguus.  

In Parkinson's disease, unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), unlike bilateral stimulation, excludes ipsilateral confounding effects so that the contralateral effects of DBS on motor performance can be investigated alone.  

Fourteen PMRF neurons located in a region ventral to the abducens nucleus produced 42 significant SpikeTA effects in arm and shoulder muscles.  

We studied whether stimulation of the thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus (VIM) improves the performance of alternating forearm movements in MS patients.  

A new synthesis way of haptens for tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline) based on the formation of their carboxamido and diazo derivatives that maintain the tetracyclic nucleus and possess an aromatic or aliphatic spacer arm--in order to create a degree of heterology in the chemical structure--is described.  

Symptom severity correlated positively with the BOLD signal in the left ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus.  

A selective CRF1 receptor antagonist (NBI27914) or vehicle was administered systemically (i.p.) or into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA, by microdialysis).  

A CT-scan of the brain revealed calcifications in the left caudate nucleus and putamen.  

Phosphorylated Stat3 was particularly prominent, not only in the nucleus but also in the plasma membrane of peripherally infiltrating glioma cells, reflecting persistent overactivation of the Janus kinase/Stat3 signal transduction pathway.  

Tremor in the proximal arm muscle, trunk, or legs is often resistant to the standard stereotactic surgery of the thalamic ventrointermediate nucleus. The white matter area between the red nucleus and the subthalamic nucleus was targeted on the T2-weighted MR-CT fused image.  

The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), as the cholinergic arm of the reticular activating system (RAS), is known to modulate arousal, waking and REM sleep.  

Our previous studies have shown that stereotaxic implantation of corticosterone (Cort) onto the central amygdaloid nucleus increases both anxiety and colonic sensitivity. In male Fischer 344 rats, Cort or cholesterol micropellets were stereotaxically implanted bilaterally at the dorsal boundary of the central amygdaloid nucleus either alone or in combination with a GR antagonist, mifepristone, or a MR antagonist, spironolactone.  

The B chromosome long arm must be present in the same nucleus for the centromere to undergo nondisjunction.  

During task performance, we recorded multi-single units and local field potentials (LFPs) simultaneously from the rats' olfactory cortex (specifically, the posterior piriform cortex) and from cortical and subcortical motor sites (the caudal forepaw M1, and the magnocellular red nucleus, respectively).  

In each nucleus the burst rates were significantly greater than zero. The differences in spontaneous LTS between human nuclei but not between functional classes within a nucleus may be a basic organizing principle of thalamic inhibitory circuitry..  

This review summarizes findings that support the above assumption, and focus on the functional involvement of the periaqueductal gray, the paralemniscal area, and the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus, in differentiated vocal control..  

The connections of trigeminal nucleus with the locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe nucleus may account for the observed phenotypic differences between the two groups.  

Spongiform degeneration and neuronal loss were not seen in the brainstem and spinal cord, but relatively marked PrP deposition was observed in the quadrigeminal body, substantia nigra, pontine nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus and posterior horn. Immunohistochemical staining for HLA-DR showed proliferation of activated microglia in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, pontine nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus and posterior horn.  

Comparison between fMRI signals performed during virtual movement of the phantom hand vs imaginary movement of the paretic hand showed increased activation in thalamus and caudate nucleus in the first condition.  

SV40 assembles in the nucleus by addition of capsid proteins to the minichromosome.  

High concentrations of the chemotherapeutic agent are maintained near the nucleus, the target site.  

The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), the cholinergic arm of the reticular activating system (RAS), is known to modulate waking and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.  

We used electrodes implanted in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease to activate motor tracts at a subcortical level.  

The authors report the neuroimaging features, treatment planning, and outcome in a case of radiosurgical thalamotomy targeting the centromedian nucleus (CMN) for stroke-induced thalamic pain.  

In response to Wg/Wnt signaling, Armadillo/beta-catenin associates in the nucleus with DNA bound TCF and several co-factors, among them Legless/BCL9, which provides a link to Pygopus.  

Substitution of the thiophene nucleus with methyl or ethyl, and its replacement by a benzene nucleus, was of minor influence.  

Zif268 levels in the experimental group increased in the anterior ventral thalamic nucleus. The selective immediate-early gene changes in the hippocampus and two closely related sites (retrosplenial cortex and anterior ventral thalamic nucleus) when processing the new stimulus configuration support the notion that the hippocampus is important for learning the 'relational' or 'structural' features of arrays of elements, be they spatial or temporal..  

Using multiple tracing approaches, we found a robust projection from the lateral basal nucleus of the amygdala to Layers II, IIIa, and V of the rostral cingulate motor cortex (M3). We also found a light projection from the lateral basal nucleus to the same layers of the caudal cingulate motor cortex (M4). Anterograde tracers placed directly into M3 and M4 revealed the amygdala connection to be reciprocal and documented corticofugal projections to the facial nucleus, surrounding pontine reticular formation, and spinal cord.  

In Xenopus laevis, we demonstrate that Wnt signals result in Frodo-mediated stabilization of p120-catenin, which, in turn, promotes Kaiso sequestration or removal from the nucleus.  

In addition, a functional test of TTX diffusion around the BC indicated that the inactivation did not affect other known parts of eyeblink circuits, such as the cerebellar interposed nuclei, the middle cerebellar peduncle or the contralateral red nucleus.  

Computed tomography (CT) and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are performed and demonstrate a left basal ganglia tumour (nucleus lentiformis).  

These observations that the strains differ with respect to behavioural strategy in a learning task suggest that they differ in the underlying neural circuitry that serves goal-directed behaviour, and are consistent with SHR having deficits associated with the nucleus accumbens..  

Of the cell bodies in the cortical areas about 82% were located in multisensory cortex, viz., the dorsoposterior and ventroposterior, posterior parietal cortex, the claustrum, and the endopiriform nucleus, 10% were located in the primary somatosensory cortex (hindlimb and trunk region), and 8% in secondary visual cortex. At subcortical levels, we observed a similar correspondence of retrogradely labeled cells and anterogradely labeled axons and terminals in visual (posterior limitans thalamic nucleus) and multisensory thalamic nuclei (dorsal and medial division of the medial geniculate body, suprageniculate nucleus, posterior thalamic cell group, zona incerta), and in the multisensory nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus. Retrograde, but not anterograde, labeling was found in the multisensory pontine reticular formation, particularly in the reticulotegmental nucleus of the pons. Conversely, anterograde, but no retrograde, labeling was found in the visual laterodorsal and lateroposterior thalamic nuclei, in the multisensory peripeduncular, posterior intralaminar, and reticular thalamic nuclei, as well as in the multisensory superior and pericentral inferior colliculi (including cuneiform and sagulum nucleus), pontine nuclei, and periaqueductal gray.  

These tRNA species efficiently accumulated into the nucleus on their own in a energy- and temperature-dependent way. Here we provide evidence that at least some tRNA species can be imported into the nucleus of human cells and promote HIV-1 nuclear import..  

We present the case of a 37-year-old woman with a tumor on the arm whose histology showed a neoplastic infiltration of the subcutaneous cellular tissue made up of fusiform cells with an elongated nucleus in a storiform pattern and other more pleomorphic cells in a herringbone pattern, compatible with DFSP with a fibrosarcoma component.  

It functions in vacuole inheritance, cytoplasm-to-vacuole protein targeting pathway, formation of the nucleus-vacuole junction and vacuole-vacuole fusion.  

Indeed, a lesion analysis showed that the dentate nucleus, an area implicated in planning motor strategies and the primary cerebellar output nucleus, was the only common region affected by our patient group with contralateral cerebellar strokes..  

In the nucleus, the Wingless/Wnt signal is transmitted via the key effector protein Armadillo/beta-catenin.  

The disruption of otolithic signals carried in brachium conjunctivum fibres connecting the fastigial nucleus with the vestibular nuclei is thought to be causatively involved, in agreement with a recently formulated model simulating central positional nystagmus.  

A patient with unilateral essential tremor (ET) of the left arm underwent stereotactically guided thalamotomy of the right ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus (VIM). As a difference between the pre- and postoperative fMRI, a significant activation was found in the VIM contralateral to the activation site, adjacent to the inferior olivary nucleus contralateral to the activation site and in the dorsal cingulum. The importance of the intermediate thalamic nucleus and the olivary nucleus in tremor generation is supported by our findings..  

We propose that RE's targets are anchor sites that tether chromosome III-L in MATalpha cells thus reducing its mobility in the nucleus..  

Moreover, Fos protein expression was also evaluated in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) that reflect the magnitude of the hormonal response to stress.  

Neurocytoma-like features included small nucleus-free areas of neuropil and perivascular pseudorosettes.  

RATIONALE: Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) produces anxiety-like and aversive effects when infused directly into the various regions of the brain, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST).  

The concentrations of norepinephrine in caudate putamen, of dopamine in nucleus accumbens, of serotonin in frontal cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and substantia nigra and of the serotonin metabolite, the 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid in substantia nigra of Ovx+E(2) rats were significantly lower than those of Ovx rats.  

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to elucidate the effect of neurospheres (NS) on dementia in the mouse model of nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) lesion.  

The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), as the cholinergic arm of the reticular activating system (RAS), is known to modulate arousal, waking and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.  

It is widely accepted that patients with Parkinson's disease experience immediate but temporary improvement in motor signs after surgical implantation of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulating electrodes before the electrodes are activated, although this has never been formally studied.  

Contrastingly, spatial memory was unaffected by microinjections of 8-OH-DPAT into the other six areas examined: ventral hippocampus (VH), central amygdaloid nucleus (ACE), lateral hypothalamus (LH), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and dorsal (DR) and median (MR) raphe nucleus.  

5.5), 6 mM cysteine induced dramatic modifications in the structural organization of the mycelium (wall, mitochondria, vacuoles and nucleus) leading to death of the hyphae.  

Pharmacological evidence indicates that the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is involved in the mediation of inhibitory avoidance but not of escape behavior in the elevated T-maze test.  

The ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM nucleus) is suggested to play an important role in the occurrence of disease.  

INTERVENTION: We implanted bilateral electrodes in the anterior limb of the internal capsule, terminating in the vicinity of the nucleus accumbens.  

Timeless (Tim) and Period (Per) are coordinately synthesized interacting proteins that in response to positional/environmental cues comigrate to the nucleus as obligate heterodimers where they act to suppress their own gene expression as part of the circadian rhythm network in Drosophila.  

Using microdialysis, we have demonstrated that acute immobilization stress activates NE release in a number of stress-related limbic forebrain target regions, such as the central and medial amygdala, lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral septum.  

Arm/beta-catenin translocates to the nucleus, interacts with DNA-binding factors of the Pangolin (Pan)/TCF/LEF class and activates transcription of target genes in cooperation with the recently identified proteins Legless/BCL9 (Lgs) and Pygopus (Pygo).  

Intraoperative microrecording revealed a significant correlation between neuronal activity of the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) and tremor electromyograms.  

The highest density of immunoreactive fibers was found in the motor trigeminal nucleus, the laminar and alaminar spinal trigeminal nuclei, the facial nucleus, the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the locus coeruleus, the cuneiform nucleus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the postpyramidal nucleus of the raphe, the lateral tegmental field, the K├Âlliker-Fuse nucleus, the inferior central nucleus, the periaqueductal gray, the nucleus of the solitary tract, and in the inferior vestibular nucleus. Immunoreactive cell bodies containing neurokinin B were observed, for example, in the locus coeruleus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the median division of the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, the lateral tegmental field, the pericentral nucleus of the inferior colliculus, the internal division of the lateral reticular nucleus, the inferior central nucleus, the periaqueductal gray, the postpyramidal nucleus of the raphe, and in the medial nucleus of the solitary tract.  

OBJECTIVE: The current study was performed to: (1) further investigate the effects of 5-HT2 receptor activation in rats exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the open-field arena, two widely used animal models for studying anxiety and locomotor activity; and (2) evaluate the involvement of the 5-HT2 receptors within the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) in the modulation of such effects.  

Microinjection of NAL into either nucleus failed to block the effects of ethanol.  

Lesions to the lateral thalamic aggregate (LT), which comprises the intralaminar nuclei (centrolateral, paracentral and rostral central medial nuclei) and lateral mediodorsal thalamic nuclei (lateral and paralamellar nuclei) produced a mild working memory impairment only, while lesions to the posteromedial thalamic aggregate (MT), which comprises the central and medial mediodorsal thalamic nuclei and the intermediodorsal nucleus had no effect on radial arm maze performance.  

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A herniated nucleus pulposis, spondylosis, epidural hematoma or abscess, neoplasm, or some pathology of the ligamentum flavum, such as hypertrophy, ossification, or calcification, are the most common causes of spinal cord and nerve root compression.  

The patients were diagnosed originally as myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), cervical herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP), and whiplash-associated disorders (WAD).  

On MRI, the lesion was thought to involve the spinothalamic tract, medial lemniscus and inferior olivary nucleus. Ambiguus nucleus was in the lesion and solitary nucleus near the lesion.  

By contrast, we also showed that microinjection of M40 into the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis attenuated anxiety-like behavioral responses to stress on the plus maze and social interaction tests, implying an anxiogenic effect for GAL. These results indicate that in LS, GAL facilitates the active anxiety-like behavioral response on the defensive burying test, similar to its facilitatory effect on anxiety-like stress-induced suppression of behavior in the lateral bed nucleus.  

PLC beta1 is a well-known example, given that it has been shown that only the enzyme located in the nucleus targets the cyclin D3/cdk4 complex, playing, in turn, a key role in the control of normal progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The immunocytochemical analysis using an anti PLC beta1 monoclonal antibody showed that all the AML/MDS patients who were normal at FISH analysis also had normal staining of the nucleus, which is a preferential site for PLC beta1. The reported data strengthen the contention of a key role played by PLC beta1 in the nucleus, suggest a possible involvement of PLC beta1 in the progression of MDS to AML and pave the way for a larger investigation aimed at identifying a possible high risk group among MDS patients with a normal karyotype..  

The subthalamic nucleus is a key structure for motor information processing in the basal ganglia. We investigated neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus while a monkey performed arm-reaching movements to obtain a liquid reward.  

No-net-flux in vivo microdialysis revealed a decrease in extracellular glutamate content in the nucleus accumbens and an increase in the prefrontal cortex.  

Although Lgs and Pygo were originally thought to serve as nuclear cofactors for Arm/beta-catenin to enhance its transactivation capacity, a recent analysis argued that they function instead to target Arm/beta-catenin to the nucleus.  

Estrogen receptors have been identified in the median raphe nucleus (MRN).  

In the Drosophila interphase nucleus, paired chromosome arms are separated into distinct, nonoverlapping domains. We propose that if the relative position of each arm in the nucleus is determined by the centromere as a relic of chromosome positions after the last mitotic division, then a locus will be displaced to a different territory of the interphase nucleus relative to its nonrearranged homolog by any rearrangement that links that locus to a different centromere. This physical displacement in the nucleus hinders transvection by disrupting the somatic pairing of homologous chromosomes and gives rise to proximal critical regions..  

MS180 rats had increased baseline CRF mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. When CRF mRNA was assessed in chronically catheter implanted and single housed rats, lower levels were found in the paraventricular nucleus of MS180 animals compared to handled animals and this parameter was not affected by CCK-4 treatment.  

Migraine, and, putatively, hypertension and platelet activation, are driven by overactive pacemaker cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the midbrain, the nucleus which mediates one arm of the physiologic response to stress. A therapeutic prediction is made that drugs such as ethosuximide, which block the low voltage-activated T-type calcium channel, which is one of the ion channels implicated in the generation of pacemaker currents in the dorsal raphe nucleus, would be useful in stroke prevention..  

Upon Wnt/Wg stimulation, stabilized Arm translocates to the nucleus, where, together with LEF/TCF transcription factors, it activates downstream target genes that regulate numerous cell biological processes..  

The effects of unilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation contralateral to thalamic stimulation in Parkinson disease (PD) have not been previously reported.  

Its depletion also prematurely triggers chromosome decondensation, a process that normally occurs from telophase for the nucleus reassembly, thus resulting in apoptosis..  

Lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) can impair spatial learning tasks, but it is not clear whether those detrimental effects depend on the specific training conditions (for example, number of response choices available) or are secondary to enhanced anxiety.  

After comparison with experimental models in cats, it is proposed that the section of the cortico-neocerebellum tract of the extra-pyramidal system disinhibits the spino-archeocerebellum tract, enabling a motor stimulation of the arm by the lateral reticular nucleus, which harmonises central respiratory and locomotor rhythms.  

INTERVENTION: A deep brain stimulation electrode was placed in the ventral intermediate nucleus of the right thalamus.  

We have studied the postnatal development of the projection to the ferret SC from the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus (nBIC), its main source of auditory input, to determine whether the emergence of auditory map topography can be attributed to anatomical rewiring of this projection.  

Structural MRI showed a small residual cavity confined to the right thalamic ventral posterolateral nucleus and the adjacent posterior arm of the internal capsule.  

Similar damage to the parabrachial nuclei, which severs the limbic taste projection, substantially reduces dopamine release from the nucleus accumbens (121+/-4% vs.  

We identified a potential novel site of action for nicotine (NIC) since (a) systemic injection of NIC led to a dose-dependent decrease in the amplitude of the sleep state-dependent, vertex-recorded, P13 midlatency auditory evoked potential (generated by the reticular activating system, RAS), (b) localized injections of a nicotinic receptor antagonist into the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, the cholinergic arm of the RAS) blocked the effects of systemic NIC on the P13 potential (a measure of level of arousal), and (c) localized injection of a nicotinic receptor agonist into the PPN also led to a decrease in the amplitude of the P13 potential, an effect blocked by PPN injection of a nicotinic receptor antagonist.  

The striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, ventral striatum including nucleus accumbens) is involved in the organization of movement and the processing of reward information.  

Characteristically, the cells possess a round to oval nucleus with a central prominent nucleolus.  

This gene is functional and encodes a protein, DUX4, located at the periphery of the cell nucleus.  

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