Nucleus Of Edinger And Westphal


We previously reported that SS monkeys have deficits in global serotonin release and serotonin-related gene expression in the raphe nucleus, and that administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor S-citalopram increased estrogen and progesterone production in SS monkeys. UCN1 cell bodies were counted in the supraoculomotor area near the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.  

In addition, our results demonstrate increased Fos immunoreactivity (FOS-IR) in the dorsal raphe nucleus, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, the cuneiform nucleus and the superior colliculus. In contrast, there were no significant alterations in the number of FOS-IR cells in the inferior colliculus or the oculomotor nucleus.  

Both peptides are highly expressed in the midbrain non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW), a center implicated in the regulation of stress adaptation and in the pathogenesis of stress-induced brain disorders, in a sex-specific manner. Following stress, physiological parameters (serum corticosterone levels, body, adrenal and thymus weights) were determined, CART and nesfatin-like immunoreactivity (LI) as well as mRNA expression were analyzed in the npEW nucleus.  

In normal tissue, HIOMT was expressed in retinal cells, pineal parenchymal cells, neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, microglia, macrophages, thyroid follicular epithelium, principal and oxyphil cells of parathyroid gland, adrenal cortical cells, hepatic parenchymal cells, renal tubule epithelium, and enteroendocrine cells of stomach and duodenum.  

Our results show that both DCLK-short and DCLK-long splice variants are present in the cell body and proximal dendrites of neurons in stress-related nuclei, ie, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW) in the rostroventral periaqueductal grey.  

The findings in our patient suggested that early dorsal midbrain syndrome mimicking an Adie's tonic pupil can be caused by obstructive hydrocephalus compressing the Edinger-Westphal nucleus..  

In particular, QC is expressed by virtually all urocortin-1-positive, but not by cholinergic neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, by noradrenergic locus coeruleus and by cholinergic nucleus basalis magnocellularis neurons in mouse brain. In human brain, QC is expressed by both, urocortin-1 and cholinergic Edinger-Westphal neurons and by locus coeruleus and nucleus basalis Meynert neurons.  

Expression of Kir3.2 in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of rat brains was analyzed by means of immunohistochemistry. This could be traced back to the absence of Kir3.2 from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in rat brains, a key cerebral structure governing pupil constriction.  

The chick OMC comprises two distinct cell groups: a dorsal Edinger-Westphal nucleus of visceral oculomotor neurons and a ventral nucleus of somatic oculomotor neurons.  

The paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) contains many neurons that innervate the brainstem, but information regarding their target sites remains incomplete. Major findings include: 1) In the midbrain, the PVH projects lightly to the ventral tegmental area, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter, reticular formation, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, and dorsal raphe nucleus. 2) In the dorsal pons, the PVH projects heavily to the pre-locus coeruleus, yet very little to the catecholamine neurons in the locus coeruleus, and selectively targets the viscerosensory subregions of the parabrachial nucleus. 3) In the ventral medulla, the superior salivatory nucleus, retrotrapezoid nucleus, compact and external formations of the nucleus ambiguous, A1 and caudal C1 catecholamine neurons, and caudal pressor area receive dense axonal projections, generally exceeding the PVH projection to the rostral C1 region. 4) The medial nucleus of the solitary tract (including A2 noradrenergic and aldosterone-sensitive neurons) receives the most extensive projections of the PVH, substantially more than the dorsal vagal nucleus or area postrema.  

Ucn 1 is most highly expressed in the perioculomotor urocortin containing neurons (pIIIu), previously known as the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW).  

Ucn1 is most abundantly expressed in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW). Using quantitative immunocytochemistry and the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we support this hypothesis, by showing in B6C3F1/Crl mice that Ucn1, CART and nesfatin-1 occur in the same neurons of the npEW nucleus.  

Available information about the development of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, sphincter pupillary muscle, optic nerve myelinization, and autonomic nervous system is briefly reviewed..  

Abdominal surgery, compared to anesthesia alone, induced Fos expression in neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW), rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and ventrolateral medulla (VLM).  

The earliest progenitors to express Shh, here referred to as the medial pool, contributes neurons to the rostral linear nucleus and mDA of the ventral tegmental area/interfascicular regions, but remarkably, little to the substantia nigra pars compacta. The last and lateral pool of Shh+ progenitors generates a cohort that populates the red nucleus, Edinger Westphal nucleus, and supraoculomotor nucleus and cap.  

Accommodation and pupil constriction result from parasympathetic stimulation from the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus of the midbrain resulting in release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions of the ciliary muscle and iris. Cholinergic and adrenergic drugs can be applied topically to evaluate the effects on the pupil and accommodative system without input from the EW nucleus. Effects on static and dynamic EW stimulated accommodation were studied in three iridectomized monkeys (ages 5, 6 and 12 years) with permanent indwelling stimulating electrodes in the EW nucleus.  

The non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW) has been implicated in regulation of the stress response.  

Information from the vestibular nuclei ascending through the brainstem to the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei (NIII, NIV), the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC), the pretectum, or thalamus, is thought to be distributed in at least five different pathways. The ATD carries mostly ipsilateral otolithic information to the medial and inferior recti subgroups in NIII and the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.  

In all vertebrates, including humans, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) forms a circumscribed cell group dorsomedial to the oculomotor nucleus (nIII).  

Varying levels of accommodation were stimulated via the Edinger-Westphal (E-W) nucleus in 26 rhesus monkeys, aged 6-27 years, and the refractive changes were measured by coincidence refractometry.  

The locus coeruleus (LC) is the major noradrenergic nucleus of the brain, giving rise to fibres innervating extensive areas throughout the neuraxis. The LC is a major wakefulness-promoting nucleus, resulting from dense excitatory projections to the majority of the cerebral cortex, cholinergic neurones of the basal forebrain, cortically-projecting neurones of the thalamus, serotoninergic neurones of the dorsal raphe and cholinergic neurones of the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and substantial inhibitory projections to sleep-promoting GABAergic neurones of the basal forebrain and ventrolateral preoptic area. The importance of the LC in controlling autonomic function results from both direct projections to the spinal cord and projections to autonomic nuclei including the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the nucleus ambiguus, the rostroventrolateral medulla, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, the caudal raphe, the salivatory nuclei, the paraventricular nucleus, and the amygdala.  

In adult mammals, the classical hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis and the urocortin 1 (Ucn1)-containing non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW) respond in opposite ways to chronic stressors.  

Ucn1 is most abundantly expressed in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW).  

The rodent non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW) is involved in the stress adaptation response. Here we describe the ultrastructural organization of this nucleus in the unchallenged rat, using different tissue fixation and embedding methods, and postembedding immunogold labeling.  

We found substantial LepRb mRNA and EYFP expression in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic sites described before, including the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventral premammillary nucleus, ventral tegmental area, parabrachial nucleus, and the dorsal vagal complex. Expression in insular cortex, lateral septal nucleus, medial preoptic area, rostral linear nucleus, and in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus was also observed and had been previously unreported.  

Some brain regions respond consistently following acute or chronic treatments or withdrawal: the prefrontal cortex; nucleus accumbens; lateral septum; hippocampus; perioculomotor urocortin-containing cells population (pIIIu), also known as Edinger-Westphal nucleus; central nucleus of the amygdala; and the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus. DISCUSSION: Some responding regions are implicated in reward related processes (VTA, extended amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, prelimbic cortex, ventral part of lateral septum) and some others in aversive-related processes (area postrema, nucleus of solitary tract).  

The perioculomotor urocortin-containing population of neurons (pIIIu: otherwise known as the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus) is sensitive to alcohol and is involved in the regulation of alcohol intake.  

Administration of CART (54-102) into the lateral ventricle (50-100 ng) or central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) (10-20 ng) caused significant decrease in immobility time in the forced swim test (FST) without influencing locomotion, suggesting antidepressant-like effect. The response by the cells and fibers in the periventricular area and perifornical nucleus in the OBX and socially isolated rats was variable.  

Results showed many common regions of activation with these two drugs including the supraoptic, paraventricular, median preoptic and ventral premammillary nuclei of the hypothalamus, the central nucleus of the amygdala, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. GHB (500 mg/kg), but not baclofen (10 mg/kg), induced significant Fos expression in the median raphe nucleus and lateral habenula, while a higher dose of GHB (1000 mg/kg) induced additional Fos expression in the islands of Calleja, dentate gyrus (polymorphic layer) and arcuate nucleus, and in various regions implicated in rapid and non-rapid eye movement sleep (laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus and the ventrolateral and anterodorsal preoptic nuclei). Surprisingly, Fos immunoreactivity was not observed with either GHB or baclofen in reward-relevant regions such as the nucleus accumbens, striatum and ventral tegmental area.  

Period 2 (Per2) is an important clock gene involved in the regulation of the major circadian clock in the mammalian central nervous system, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We have previously showed that the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW) is the main site of the corticotropin-releasing factor peptide family member urocortin 1 (Ucn1) and that this peptide undergoes conspicuous expression changes in response to various stressors.  

Double-labeling experiments revealed nNOS/ChAT-positive cells in (1) the diencephalon: the preoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei, the habenula, the dorsal thalamus, and the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus; (2) the mesencephalon: the optic tectum, the mesencephalic portion of the trigeminal nucleus, the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei, and the Edinger-Westphal nucleus; and (3) the rhombencephalon: the secondary gustatory nucleus, the nucleus isthmi, the lateral lemniscus nucleus, the cerebellum, the reticular formation, different nuclei of the octaval column, the motor zone of the vagal lobe, and the trigeminal, facial, abducens, glosso-pharyngeal, vagal, and hypobranchial motor nuclei. The percentage of double-labeled cells was different in each studied nucleus, indicating a selective distribution pattern.  

Additionally, outside of the hypothalamus, labeling was observed in the thalamic parafascicular nucleus, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, locus coeruleus, ventral raphe system, nucleus of solitary tract and in the preganglionic sympathetic intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord, and the pituitary anterior and intermediate lobes. Double-labeling immunohistochemistry revealed colocalization of nesfatin with vasopressin and oxytocin in magnocellular neuroendocrine neurons, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, somatostatin, neurotensin, and growth-hormone-releasing hormone in parvocellular neuroendocrine neurons, pro-opiomelanocortin (but not neuropeptide Y) in the arcuate nucleus and melanin-concentrating hormone (but not hypocretin) in the lateral hypothalamus.  

The primate Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) contains perioculomotor preganglionic (pIII(PG)) motoneurons that control the lens and pupil. However, choline acetyl transferase staining reveals a single paired column of cells dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus, suggesting the EW is not subdivided.  

There is a distinct population of CART neurons located in the vicinity of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the midbrain that also colocalize urocortin-1. Stereological analysis of CART immunostaining at five levels of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus indicated little effect of E or E+P administration on the area of CART immunostaining.  

METHODS: In 18 rhesus monkey eyes (aged 6-27 years), accommodation was induced before and after surgery by electrical stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.  

PURPOSE: To determine the role of the lens and the lens capsule in the three-dimensional architecture of the ciliary muscle at rest and during accommodation, in live rhesus monkeys and in histologic sections, by removing the entire lens, or only the lens nucleus and cortex, while leaving the posterior capsule in place. METHODS: In 15 rhesus monkey eyes, aged 6 to 27 years, accommodation was induced by central stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus before and after intra- or extracapsular lens extraction (ICLE, ECLE).  

We have tested the significance of CRF and Ucn1 in adaptation to chronic psychosocial stress in male tree shrews exposed for 35 days to daily psychosocial conflict, by performing semi-quantitative immunocytochemistry for CRF in the parvocellular hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (pPVN), extended amygdala, viz. central extended amygdala (CeA) and dorsolateral nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTdl) as well as that for Ucn1 in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW).  

Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) innervate the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), providing irradiance information for entrainment of circadian rhythms and for stimulating the pupillary light reflex. Infection of the iris with pseudorabies virus (PRV) results in retrograde transneuronal label of OPN projection neurons that innervate preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus; PRV-labeled cells were located almost exclusively within the terminal field of M1 ipRGCs in the periphery (shell) of the OPN.  

In mice over-expressing neuronal CRF (an animal model for depression) the expression of urocortin 1 (Ucn1) in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW) is strongly down-regulated.  

CARTp-immunoreactive cells occur in the olfactory bulb, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, septum, striatum, nucleus of Bellonci, ventrolateral nucleus, central thalamic nucleus, preoptic nuclei, and suprachiasmatic nucleus, and particularly in the medial pallium, ventromedial nucleus, hypothalamus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, optic tectum, raphe nuclei, central gray, nucleus of the solitary tract, and spinal cord. From the hypothalamic magnocellular nucleus, CARTp-containing axons run to the neurohemal median eminence, and to the neural pituitary lobe to form neurohemal terminals, as shown by immunoelectron microscopy.  

The name Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) is kept for the cytoarchitecturally defined cell group traditionally considered as the location of preganglionic neurons of the ciliary ganglion. For the first time, the MIF motoneurons could be identified around the medial aspect of the human oculomotor nucleus as a group of ChAT-positive neurons that lack CSPG-positive perineuronal nets. Moreover, the Perlia nucleus was found to share the histochemical properties of oculomotor twitch motoneurons.  

Most urocortin-positive (urocortin(+)) neurons in rodents are found in the cytoarchitecturally defined Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW). In the cat, most nonoculomotor ChAT(+) cells were located in the supraoculomotor area and anteromedian nucleus. Instead, this nucleus was filled with urocortin(+) cells.  

Perioculomotor urocortin-containing neurons (pIIIu), also known as the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus, are the major source of Ucn1 in the brain and are known to innervate the lateral septum.  

A model to reproducibly stimulate accommodation through central stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus was developed.  

Modafinil reduced the light reflex amplitude, suggesting an increase in the inhibitory input at the pupilloconstrictor Edinger-Westphal nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: These effects of modafinil are best explained via an activation of the hypoxia-sensitive nucleus locus coeruleus.  

We recently reported that cholinergic neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) contain little FGF1, raising the possibility that FGF1 is not localized to parasympathetic preganglionic cholinergic neurons. To clarify this issue, we investigated the co-localization of FGF1 with cholinergic neuron markers in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWN), salivatory nucleus, DMNV, and sacral parasympathetic nucleus by double immunofluorescence using antibodies to FGF1 and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). In the salivatory nucleus, 13% of ChAT-positive neurons were also positive for FGF1. In the DMNV, only 8% of ChAT-positive neurons contained FGF1, and in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus, 18% of ChAT-positive neurons were FGF1-positive. We also confirmed that a large number of ChAT-positive motor neurons in the oculomotor nucleus, facial nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus, and spinal motor neurons contained FGF1.  

Previously, in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW), moderate immunostaining of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) was demonstrated, whereas estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) was found to be more abundant.  

Nesfatin-1 is a recently identified satiety molecule detectable in neurons of the hypothalamus and nucleus of solitary tract (NTS). Immunohistochemical studies revealed nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (irNEF) cells in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, and caudal raphe nuclei of the rats, in addition to the hypothalamus and NTS reported in the initial study. Double-labeling immunohistochemistry showed that irNEF cells were vasopressin or oxytocin positive in the paraventricular and supraoptic nucleus; cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript or tyrosine hydroxylase positive in arcuate nucleus; cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript or melanin concentrating hormone positive in the lateral hypothalamus. In the brainstem, irNEF neurons were choline acetyltransferase positive in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and dorsal motor nucleus of vagus; tyrosine hydroxylase positive in the NTS; and 5-hydroxytryptamine positive in the caudal raphe nucleus.  

Significant differences were found between lines in the number of Ucn1-containing cells in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW, the main source of Ucn1 in the brain); with the ISS mice having more cells. Importantly, the ILS mice also had a significantly greater number of Ucn1-positive terminal fibers than ISS mice in the lateral septum and the dorsal raphe nucleus, projection areas of Ucn1-containing neurons.  

Exposure to male song in breeding condition females reduced pTH density in brain regions involved in social behavior (lateral septum, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus) and a region involved in visual processing (nucleus of Edinger-Westphal) but not song control regions.  

CRF mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus was stimulated by mild stress (ip saline injection and placement in a novel cage) in LF-fed rats but not in rats fed HF diet for 5 days because of a nonsignificant increase in expression in nonstressed HF-fed rats. In addition, nonstressed levels of urocortin (UCN) I mRNA expression in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus were significantly inhibited in HF-fed rats.  

The majority of cholinergic nuclei typically found in mammals were evident in the microbat, however we could not find evidence for choline-acetyltransferase immunopositive neurons in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, and the medullary tegmental field, as seen in several other mammalian species.  

This mini-review aims to summarize our recent data and research by others indicating that an important role is played by Ucn1 in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW).  

In rats, urocortin 1, a corticotropin-releasing factor-like peptide, is expressed mainly in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus. We investigated the number of neurons immunoreactive for urocortin 1 at three different levels of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in female rats by immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that the hormonal status of the female rat affects urocortin 1 immunoreactive neurons in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus and its signaling to target brain areas..  

A large increase in nuclear Egr-1 immunolabeling was observed in several dorsomedial thalamic nuclei, and in a stream of neurons extending from below the mesencephalic central gray (overlapping the nucleus of Darkschewitsch at these levels) to just anterior to the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal. A more modest increase in neuronal nuclear Egr-1 was observed in the medial posterior hypothalamic area, the mesencephalic periventricular area, the ventral tegmental area, the inferior colliculus, the nucleus paramedianus of the midbrain, and the intercollicular nucleus. In those mammals, in which the boundaries of the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal are indistinct, the caudal part of the homologous field of urocortinergic neurons has been referred to as the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal. In pigeons, in which the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal is cytoarchitectonically well-defined, the caudal part of this urocortinergic field clearly does not include the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal..  

METHODS: Pilocarpine and atropine were applied topically to manipulate resting refraction, accommodative amplitude, starting point, and end point in two monkeys with permanent electrodes in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.  

An immunocytochemical assay revealed reduced c-fos expression in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus following CPF treatment, a critical brain area that has been implicated in ethanol intake and sedation.  

Ucn1 is abundantly expressed in the nonpreganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW), where it is codistributed with NPY-immunoreactive (ir) terminals.  

Experiments were performed on one eye each of three rhesus monkeys with permanent indwelling electrodes in the EW nucleus of the midbrain.  

Choroidal blood flow in pigeon eyes is light driven and controlled by a parasympathetic input from ciliary ganglion (CG) neurons that receive input from the medial subdivision of the ipsilateral nucleus of Edinger-Westphal (EWM).  

Our results reveal that CRF mRNA expression patterns in all four vole species appear highly conserved throughout the brain, including the olfactory bulb, nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic area, central amygdala, hippocampus, posterior thalamus, and cerebellum. Similarly, Ucn1 mRNA primarily localized to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in all four vole species.  

The sedation may be related to the removal of the dopaminergic excitation of the locus coeruleus (via the meso-coerulear pathway), whereas the pupil dilatation may be due to the removal of the dopaminergic excitation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (via a putative meso-pupillomotor pathway).  

The early Alzheimer's pathology seen in the Edinger-Westphal area of cranial nerve III, a major centre for pupil control, is primarily tau-based with significant cell loss in this nucleus leading to central denervation hypersensitivity even in elderly who are clinically silent but who have early pathology..  

Ethanol administration induced a clear conditioned place preference and widespread c-fos expression, with elements of the extended amygdala, Edinger-Westphal nucleus and paraventricular nucleus being especially sensitive.  

Moderate levels are seen in the dorsal endopiriform, dorsal tenia tecta, bed nucleus, and the red nucleus. Low levels are in the olfactory bulb, parastrial nucleus, hypothalamus, laterodorsal tegmentum, superior colliculus, locus coeruleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Although the NPB precursor is mostly expressed at low levels in the brain, moderate expression is seen in anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform cortex, median preoptic nucleus, basolateral amygdala, hippocampus, medial tuberal nucleus, substantia nigra, dorsal raphe nucleus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, and the locus coeruleus.  

Consistent with our earlier findings, LY354740 administration (20 mg/kg, i.p.) to wild-type mice increased c-Fos expression in specific limbic (central amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, midline thalamic nuclei) and non-limbic (thalamic dorsolateral geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, Edinger-Westphal) structures, while modestly suppressing hippocampal c-Fos expression.  

Neuropeptide W (NPW) is a recently identified neuropeptide that binds to G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 7, which is highly expressed in several discrete regions of the rodent brain including the central amygdaloid nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. NPW-immunoreactive (ir) cells were detected in the ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray, and Edinger-Westphal nucleus. NPW-ir fibers were observed in several brain regions, including the lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus, central amygdaloid nucleus, CA1 field of hippocampus, interpeduncular nucleus, inferior colliculus, lateral parabrachial nucleus, facial nucleus, and hypoglossal nucleus. NPW-ir fibers were most abundantly observed in the central amygdaloid nucleus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which are regions implicated in fear and anxiety.  

Classically, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus is described as containing neurons controlling accommodation and pupillary constriction via projections to the ciliary ganglion. However, in several species including rat, some Edinger-Westphal neurons have ascending or descending CNS projections suggesting that the Edinger-Westphal nucleus might also have non-ocular functions. To further characterize the function of this nucleus we studied the electrophysiological properties of Edinger-Westphal neurons in a slice preparation from juvenile rats. The position of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus was determined using an immunohistochemical procedure directed at the peptide Urocortin, which is expressed in Edinger-Westphal neurons. In conclusion, the rat Edinger-Westphal nucleus contains two separate types of neurons with distinct electrophysiological properties..  

The natural occurrence of a polyadenylated intron-retained urocortin 1 RNA was further documented by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR), primed with oligo(dT), of total RNA extracted from three brain regions, a midbrain region containing the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, cerebellum and prefrontal cortex.  

Recently, in the amphibian Xenopus laevis, CRF- and Ucn1-immunoreactivities were shown in the hypothalamic magnocellular nucleus (Mg) and evidence was obtained for their involvement in food intake. These differences were mainly apparent in the ventral part of the Mg, followed by the medial and dorsal part of the nucleus. The dorsomedial part of the suprachiasmatic nucleus showed 5.9 times more NPY-ir cells and in the ventromedial thalamic area a lower number of NPY-ir cells (-33.6%) was found, whereas the Edinger-Westphal nucleus contained fewer CART-ir cells (-42.2%); no effect of starvation was seen in the ventral hypothalamic nucleus.  

In an additional experiment, in situ hybridization was used to measure mRNA expression of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) and CRF receptors in hypothalamic nuclei, of urocortin (UCN) in the Edinger Westphal nucleus and of UCN III in the rostral perifornical area and medial amygdaloidal nucleus. Immediately after the second 3 h bout of restraint stress, there was a significant increase in expression of UCN in the Edinger Westphal nucleus and of CRF-R1 in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and a less pronounced decrease in CRF-R2 expression in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

The noradrenergic locus coeruleus is a major wakefulness-promoting nucleus of the brain, which is also involved in the regulation of autonomic and endocrine functions. The sedative effect of pramipexole and the autonomic effects of modafinil are consistent with altered activity in the mesocoerulear pathway; the pupil dilatation following pramipexole suggests reduced dopaminergic excitation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus..  

Accommodation was stimulated through the full amplitude available to each eye by stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the brain.  

The midbrain-localized Edinger-Westphal nucleus is a major site of production of urocortin 1. In several mouse models, the amount of urocortin 1 neurons within the Edinger-Westphal nucleus is positively associated with ethanol preference. It is possible that brain areas such as the dorsal raphe, which receives urocortin 1 from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and highly expresses corticotropin-releasing factor type-2 receptors, mediate the actions of urocortin 1 on feeding and ethanol preference. These results suggest that the dorsal raphe is a neuroanatomical substrate of urocortin 1-induced reductions in feeding, possibly through modulation of serotonergic activity from this nucleus. In addition, it is suggested that endogenous urocortin 1 in this area, such as from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, does not regulate ethanol preference in C57BL/6J mice..  

The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) produces several neuropeptides, including urocortin 1 and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript, which regulate feeding, energy balance, and anxiety.  

The present study was designed to assess whether the c-Fos expression that occurs in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) after EtOH administration is independent of the hypothermia or any stress effects that occur. To test this, we used restraint stress and LPS in addition to EtOH, and also examined two control areas, the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the periaqueductal gray (PAG), in addition to EW.  

The central cut end of the lingual nerve (LN) was stimulated electrically to simulate somatic stimulation, and 1 microL of lidocaine (2%) was microinjected into the Vsp or the EW nucleus to determine its effect on the pupillary dilation induced by LN stimulation. RESULTS: Stimulation of the LN or the trigeminal spinal nucleus (Vsp) evoked pupillary dilation in a frequency- and intensity-dependent manner. The pupillary responses were markedly suppressed by microinjecting lidocaine into the ipsilateral Vsp or the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus, but not by injection into the contralateral Vsp. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the Vsp and EW nucleus act as bulbar relay centers for pupillary dilation elicited by LN stimulation and suggest that the efferent arc of the response is a parasympathetic pathway. The contralateral pupillary dilation appears to be mediated, at least in part, by fibers projecting from the Vsp to the contralateral EW nucleus..  

BACKGROUND: Ethanol administration and consumption selectively activates the urocortin 1 (Ucn1)-expressing neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Ucn1 immunoreactivity was measured in the lateral septum, dorsal raphe, and Edinger-Westphal nucleus.  

Acute heroin increased Fos-IR in drug-na├»ve rats in the caudate-putamen (CPu; central, medial and dorsomedial regions), nucleus accumbens (NAC; core and shell regions), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), lateral septum, central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), periaqueductal grey (PAG; dorsolateral, dorsomedial, and lateral), and the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.  

Among mice drinking ethanol, an increase in c-Fos expression was seen in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, and a decrease in c-Fos expression was seen in the cingulate cortex, ventral tegmental area, lateral and medial septum, CA1 region of the hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala.  

It was shown that the urocortin 1-positive neurons are located within the area identified as the Edinger-Westphal nucleus according to the human brain stem atlas, and that the neurons identified as Edinger-Westphal nucleus in the atlas are not choline acetyltransferase-positive. They indicate that the neurons identified as Edinger-Westphal nucleus in the human brain stem atlas belong to the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus, whereas the location of preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus remains unidentified..  

RESULTS: Significant differences were found between iP/iNP, HARF/LARF, and HAD2/LAD2 in number of Ucn1-containing cells in the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus (the main source of Ucn1 in the brain), whereas no significant differences were found between HAD1/LAD1 and AA/ANA.  

The urocortin1 (Ucn1) neurons of the mid-brain-localized Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) are robustly responsive to ethanol (EtOH) administration, and send projections to the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), which contains corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 receptors (CRF2) that are responsive to Ucn1.  

The efficacy of the choroidal vasodilatory response to activation of the CG preganglionic input from the medial subdivision of the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal (EWM) was assessed using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF).  

Acute administration of heroin in vehicle pretreated rats increased Fos-IR in the central, medial, and dorsomedial caudate putamen (CPu), nucleus accumbens (NAC, core and shell regions), lateral septum, islands of Calleja-major (ICjM), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), dorsolateral and dorsomedial periaqueductal gray (PAG), ventral tegmental area (VTA), Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW).  

In the hypothalamus, irNPB cells were present in the medial preoptic area and nucleus, ventromedial preoptic nucleus, retrochiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, accessory neurosecretory nuclei, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic retrochiasmatic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, posterior hypothalamic area, dorsal hypothalamic area, and zona incerta. A few irNPB perikarya were noted in the arcuate nucleus, whereas a dense network of nerve fibers was present in the median eminence. In the midbrain, irNPB somata were noted in the substantia nigra (compact, reticular, medial, and lateral parts), paranigral nucleus, ventral tegmental area, interfascicular nucleus, and dorsal raphe nucleus.  

Saline stimulated FOSir in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVA) and the dorsal hypothalamic area (DA) in MKO mice, but not in wild-type (WT), suggesting that MKO homozygotes may differ responsively from WT. However, ethanol stimulated modest FOSir in the lateral septal division (LSV), suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCh) and the dorsal and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei (DLG and VLG) in WT mice, but not in MKO mice.  

Urocortin 1 (Ucn1) neurons, most abundantly expressed in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-WN), respond to various acute challenges.  

The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), homolog of the primate pregeniculate nucleus, modulates circadian rhythms. These include the oculomotor, trochlear, anterior pretectal, Edinger-Westphal, and the terminal nuclei; all layers of the superior colliculus, interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray, nucleus of the optic tract, the inferior olive, and raphe interpositus. However, the locus coeruleus and medial vestibular nucleus, which contribute to sleep and eye movement regulation and which send projections to the IGL, do not receive reciprocal projections from it.  

In both strains, the highest number of urocortin 1-positive neurons was observed in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and lateral superior olive. Urocortin 1-positive neurons were detected in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus of DBA/2J mice, but were absent in the C57BL/6J strain. Further, we found that in both mouse strains, urocortin 1 in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and choline acetyltransferase are not coexpressed. We show that the urocortin 1-positive neurons of this brain area form a separate population of cells that we propose to be called the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus..  

The images, prior to, during, and following electrical stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus were compared for evidence of movement of the crystalline lens equator.  

laevis brain, the main site of UCN1-positive somata was found to be the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. UCN1 immunoreactivity (ir) also occurs in the nucleus posteroventralis tegmenti, central gray, nucleus reticularis medius, nucleus motorius nervi facialis, and nucleus motorius nervi vagi. UCN1 occurs together with CRF in the nucleus motorius nervi trigemini, and in the magnocellular nucleus, which send a UCN1- and CRF-containing fiber tract to the median eminence.  

Both CCK- and SP-positive fibers innervating the thalamus are found principally in the midline nuclei, including the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT), which has strong reciprocal connections with the medial prefrontal cortex. The PVT-projecting neurons showing CCK immunoreactivity were detected in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and ventral mesencephalic periaqueductal gray, including the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and the dorsal raphe nucleus. Sources of SP afferents to the PVT were detected in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, the mesopontine tegmentum and the medullary raphe nucleus.  

Experiments were conducted on three rhesus monkeys (aged 11.5, 4.75 and 4.75 years) which had undergone prior, bilateral, complete iridectomies and implantation of a stimulating electrode in the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus.  

METHODS: Accommodation was stimulated by an indwelling permanent electrode in the EW nucleus of the midbrain in one eye each of four rhesus monkeys.  

In addition, strong hybridization signals were localized in various nuclei: main and accessory olfactory bulb, compact part of the substantia nigra, pontine gray matter, tegmental reticular nucleus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, trigeminal motor nucleus, locus coeruleus, mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, raphe nuclei, facial nucleus, ambiguus nucleus, dorsal motor vagal nucleus, and inferior olivary nucleus.  

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript-(55-102)-immunoreactive perikarya co-expressed melanin-concentrating hormone-immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, zona incerta and posterior hypothalamic area. In addition, arcuate nucleus, hypothalamic periventricular nucleus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, and the rostral aspect of the dorsal raphe nucleus contained cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript-immunoreactive cell profiles. Orexin B-immunoreactive perikarya were distributed in the lateral hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and retrochiasmatic area. Whereas immunoreactivity for all examined peptides was absent in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, dense and large orexin B-immunoreactive fibers and to a lesser extent melanin-concentrating hormone- and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript-immunoreactive fibers of smaller size were present in the intergeniculate leaflet and raphe nucleus.  

Maximum accommodation was centrally stimulated via the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in monkeys with a 4 s on, 4 s off paradigm (4 x 4) for 17 min, 4 x 1.5 for 27 min and 2 x 1 for 16 min.  

Morphine increased Fos-IR in several brain regions including the caudate-putamen (CPu), cortex (cingulate, insular and piriform), nucleus accumbens (NAS) shell, lateral septum (LS), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), medial preoptic nucleus (MPO), hypothalamus (paraventricular, dorsomedial and ventromedial), paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PV), amygdala (central and basolateral nuclei), dorsolateral periaqueductal gray, ventral tegmental area (VTA), and Edinger-Westphal nucleus. SR 141716 alone increased Fos-IR in the cortex (cingulate, insular and piriform), NAS (shell), LS, BNST, hypothalamus (paraventricular, dorsomedial and ventromedial), PV, amygdala (central, basolateral and medial nuclei), VTA, and Edinger-Westphal nucleus. SR 141716 attenuated morphine-induced Fos-IR in several regions including the CPu, cortex, NAS (shell), LS, MnPO, MPO, paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus, PV, basolateral amygdala, VTA, and Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW).  

Ucn's distribution in the rat brain has been demonstrated, with the most abundant Ucn-immunoreactive perikarya present in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-WN).  

The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible interaction between Ucn and NO in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), an area known to be involved in the modulation of these particular behaviors. This investigation was extended to include the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the Edinger-Westphal nucleus area (EW), the latter being one of the major cellular Ucn-expressing sites.  

METHODS: The time course and extent of mydriasis from subconjunctival injection of 2% pirenzepine were determined in five normal rhesus monkeys, and the effects on static and dynamic accommodation were determined in four rhesus monkeys with permanent indwelling electrodes in the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus of the midbrain.  

The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) is a brain region that has recently been implicated as an important novel neural target for ethanol.  

Meanwhile, MK-801, a noncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, was shown to markedly reduce the expression of c-Fos in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) following noxious stimulation but to enhance c-Fos expression markedly in other brain regions, i.e., the neocortex, dorsal raphe and thalamic nuclei. Twelve hours after the beginning of experimental tooth movement, c-Fos was expressed bilaterally in the superficial laminae of Vc (Vc I/II), dorsomedial areas of the trigeminal subnucleus oralis (Vodm) and rostro-dorsomedial areas of the trigeminal subnucleus oralis (Vor) with the ipsilaterally dominant distribution, but hardly in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW). Intraperitoneal administration of MK-801 (0.03, 0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg) prior to the onset of experimental tooth movement reduced c-Fos in the TSNC (Vc I/II, Vodm and Vor) but increased it in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), ventrolateral PAG (vl PAG), DR and EW.  

In the forebrain, immunoreactive cells and fibers were found in the olfactory bulb, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, medial pallium, septum, striatum, the preoptic nuclei, ventromedial nucleus, central thalamic nucleus, and the hypothalamus. In the mesencephalon, many cells were stained in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, and a few in the optic tectum, where fibers were stained in all plexiform layers. In the rhombencephalon, cells were stained in the raphe nuclei, central gray, nucleus of the solitary tract, and the vicinity of motor nuclei.  

Neuronal cell bodies containing ChAT are present in the telencephalon (lateral nucleus of ventral telencephalic area), preoptic region (anterior/posterior parvocellular and magnocellular preoptic nuclei), diencephalon (habenula, dorsal thalamus, posterior tuberculum), mesencephalon (Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus, oculomotor nerve nucleus, rostral tegmental nucleus, tectal type XIV neurons), isthmic region (nucleus lateralis valvulae, secondary gustatory-viscerosensory nucleus, nucleus isthmi (NI), perilemniscal nucleus, superior reticular nucleus (SRN)) and rhombencephalon (trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, glossopharyngeal-vagal motor nerve nuclei, rostral and caudal populations of octavolateralis efferent neurons). Obvious ChAT positive terminal fields are present in the supracommissural nucleus of area ventralis telencephali and the medial zone of area dorsalis telencephali, parvocellular superficial pretectal nucleus, torus semicircularis, medial octavolateralis nucleus, facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagal lobes, and in the inferior lobe (around the periventricular nucleus of the lateral recess and in the diffuse nucleus).  

The latter reduces parasympathetic neuronal tone to the iris sphincter muscle by stimulation of postsynaptic alpha(2)-adrenoceptors within the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.  

Intraocular injection of the Bartha strain of pseudorabies virus (PRV Bartha) results in transsynaptic infection of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a retinorecipient circadian oscillator. It was observed that infection in preganglionic autonomic nuclei (i.e., Edinger-Westphal nucleus, superior salivatory nucleus, and intermediolateral nucleus) precedes infection in the SCN. Sympathetic superior cervical ganglionectomy did not abolish label in the SCN after intraocular infection, nor did lesions of parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. However, combined Edinger-Westphal nucleus ablation and superior cervical ganglionectomy eliminated infection of the SCN.  

Stressors recruit Ucn-immunoreactive neurons in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-WN), which is the major site of Ucn expression.  

LY354740 administration significantly increased c-Fos expression in specific limbic regions, including the lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL), lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, and Edinger-Westphal nucleus, whether or not animals were exposed to the EPM. Moreover, LY354740 administration per se significantly increased c-Fos expression in regions processing sensory information, including the paraventricular and lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus as well as the nucleus of the optic tract and superior colliculus.  

The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWN) is a central preganglionic parasympathetic cell group that gives rise to cholinergic input to the ciliary ganglion, thereby regulating several neurovegetative ocular functions.  

Ucn is most abundantly expressed in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-WN), co-distributed with catecholaminergic terminals.  

Midbrain projections of the pretectal olivary nucleus (PON) were studied in the marmoset, a New World primate. The fluorescent retrograde tracers Fluoro-Gold (FG) and Fast Blue (FB) were injected into the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus and the lateral terminal nucleus (LTN), respectively. EW nucleus injections resulted in retrograde labeling of significant numbers of FG-positive neurons of the PON as well as a small number of cells in the LTN. The ipsilateral PON was devoid of FB-labeled somata, whereas the adjacent nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) contained FB-labeled cells. This, combined with our earlier observation that LTN neurons project to the EW nucleus in the marmoset (see main text for reference), lends support to the presence of separate direct and indirect pupillary light reflex pathways from the PON to the nucleus of EW..  

We present a patient having 'top of the basilar syndrome' with midbrain infarction selectively involving the bilateral oculomotor nucleus. On the basis of clinical findings alone, we could not establish whether the precise location of the lesion was all the subdivisions of the oculomotor nucleus except the Edinger-Westphal nucleus or the central caudal nucleus and bilateral fascicles. However, because axial MRI showed a small midbrain infarct in the oculomotor nucleus region, we concluded that she had an isolated, pupil-sparing, bilateral oculomotor nuclear palsy caused by midbrain infarct..  

Within the monkey telencephalon, CHT-immunoreactive perikarya were found in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, medial septum, vertical and horizontal limb nuclei of the diagonal band, nucleus basalis complex, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

However, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) appears to be the only brain site where UCN expression is conserved across species. Of particular interest were UCN-immunoreactive inputs to the medial preoptic area, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the oral part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the flocculus of the cerebellum, and the spinal cord laminae VII and X.  

However, NOS mRNA signals were absent from the Edinger Westphal, facial or motory trigeminal nucleus. superior and inferior colliculi, raphe nuclei, solitary tract or pontine nucleus were documented.  

In WT mice, methylphenidate induced Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) in the mesostriatal and mesolimbocortical DA pathways that included the anterior olfactory nucleus, frontal association cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, claustrum, lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and dorsal raphe. Additional areas of activation included the granular dentate gyrus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. While the mutants showed little response in most of these same areas, the anterior olfactory nucleus, caudal caudate-putamen, lateral septum, basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala, and bed nucleus of stria terminalis were activated. Amphetamine and cocaine produced similar changes to that for methylphenidate, except these psychostimulants also induced Fos-LI in the nucleus accumbens of the KO animals.  

Drinking a 5% ethanol/10% sucrose solution in a 30 min limited access procedure led to induction of c-Fos immunoreactivity in urocortin (Ucn)-positive cells of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW), suppression of c-Fos immunoreactivity in the dorsal portion of the lateral septum (LS) of both strains of mice, and strain-specific suppression in the intermediate portion of the LS and the CA3 hippocampal region.  

N(2)O administration produced significant (P<0.05) dose-related increases of c-Fos expression in several forebrain regions, including the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, the thalamic paraventricular nucleus, the amygdala, and in retrosplenial cortex. In the midbrain, N(2)O caused significant dose-related c-Fos expression in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Finally, the pontine locus coeruleus, and two medullary regions, the nucleus of the solitary tract and ventrolateral medulla, also showed significant dose-related N(2)O-induced c-Fos expression.  

The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW), anteromedian nucleus (AM) and adjacent neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are sources of preganglionic parasympathetic innervation of intraocular smooth muscle, including blood vessels, pupillary muscle and the ciliary body in mammals. Vestibular nucleus projections to these regions originate from all levels of the superior, medial and lateral vestibular nuclei, but do show topographic organization.  

Urocortin's distribution in the rat's brain has been demonstrated, with the most abundant urocortin-ir perikarya present in Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript is widely expressed in the rat brain, with a dominant seat of cellular expression also in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Since immediate early gene expressions were seen in several midbrain regions, such as in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, following various acute stresses, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus has been postulated to exert a regulatory/modulatory control over stress responses. Based on these data we decided to investigate the possible colocalization of urocortin and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript-ir in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus using semithin double-label immunofluorescence technique. Our experiments revealed that urocortin and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript immunoreactivities colocalize in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. In addition, our studies using the inducible immediate early gene c-fos as a marker of activated neurons demonstrated a significant stress-induced activation in perikarya colocalizing urocortin- and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript-ir in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.  

A statistically significant induction of c-Fos was observed in the shell of nucleus accumbens and posterior medial cortical amygdala only following the acute thermal exposure, showing a significant habituation of the response to repeated treatments, a finding arguing against specificity of responses in these nuclei to thermal exposures. In contrast, expression of c-Fos was significantly increased following both acute and repeated thermal exposures in subregions of hypothalamus (the median and medial preoptic nuclei, the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and the posterior hypothalamic area), septum (the ventral and dorsal portions of the lateral septum), midbrain (the periaqueductal gray and the intermediate layers of superior colliculus), as well as in the dentate gyrus and the paraventricular nucleus of thalamus, suggesting specificity of their responses to external temperatures. Expression of c-Fos was also significantly increased in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus following acute thermal exposures versus control mice, but not versus mice repeatedly exposed to cold and hot temperatures, providing modest support for thermal specificity of c-Fos response in this nucleus.  

Expression of c-Fos was significantly higher in the alcohol/sucrose group than both the water and sucrose groups in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, and significantly lower in the alcohol/sucrose group than two control groups in hippocampal subregions, posterior hypothalamus and dorsal lateral septum. Double immunohistochemistry showed that alcohol-induced c-Fos-positive cells in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus co-localized with the neuropeptide urocortin. Brain regions showing alcohol-specific changes in c-Fos expression after this procedure can be connected into a novel neurocircuit, including lateral septum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and the Edinger-Westphal nucleus..  

The great majority of Ucn-immunoreactive perikarya was seen in the anterior preoptic area, ventromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior tuberculum, nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, and Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Urocortin-immunoreactive nerve cells were also observed in the motor nuclei of the trigeminal and facial nerves and in the hypoglossal nucleus. Immunoreactive fibers were found in the medial and lateral septal nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, many of the thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, mesencephalic tectum, tegmental nuclei, torus semicircularis, and dorsal horn and central field of the spinal cord.  

On E18 and E20, only the Edinger-Westphal nucleus exhibited a strong CART staining as described in the adult brain.  

Ucn may modulate the acoustic startle response through the Ucn-expressing neuron projections from the region of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus..  

Almost half of the cells are distributed rostral to the oculomotor nucleus, both in and lateral to the anteromedian nucleus. Of the remaining preganglionic motoneurons, roughly 20% of the total are located dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus. Strikingly few of these neurons are actually found within the Edinger-Westphal nucleus proper. An additional population, roughly 30% of the total, is located ventral to the oculomotor nucleus. The results suggest that the pupil-related preganglionic motoneurons, that is, those controlling the iris sphincter pupillae muscle, are located rostrally, in and lateral to the anteromedian nucleus. In contrast, lens-related preganglionic motoneurons, that is, those controlling the ciliary muscle are particularly prevalent caudally, both dorsal and ventral to the oculomotor nucleus.  

The distribution of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits was studied in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) of chicks and pigeons.  

Mapping inducible transcription factors has shown that the Edinger-Westphal nucleus is preferentially sensitive to alcohol intoxication.  

In addition, alpha-synuclein was intense in the vagus nucleus, but weak in the oculomotor, facial, hypoglossal, accessory and ambiguous nuclei, where beta-synuclein was very intensely present. Furthermore, gamma-synuclein was localized in the terminals and in cell bodies of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, the red nucleus, locus coeruleus, and most cranial nerve-related nuclei.  

The Edinger-Westphal nucleus is the primary source of urocortin in rodent brain. Mapping of inducible transcription factors has shown that the Edinger-Westphal nucleus is preferentially sensitive to ethanol self-administration. Subsequent histological analysis confirmed a lower number of large neurons in the DBA/2J Edinger-Westphal nucleus.  

In the diencephalon, TRHir neurons were observed in the anterior parvocellular preoptic nucleus, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, the rostral parts of the anterior tuberal nucleus and torus lateralis, and the posterior tuberal nucleus. Some TRHir neurons were also observed in the central posterior thalamic nucleus and in the habenula. The mesencephalon contained TRHir cells in the rostrodorsal tegmentum, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, the torus semicircularis, and the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. Further TRHir neurons were observed in the interpeduncular nucleus. In the rhombencephalon, TRHir cells were observed in the nucleus isthmi and the locus coeruleus, rostrally, and in the vagal lobe and vagal motor nucleus, caudally. In the forebrain, TRHir fibers were abundant in several regions, including the medial and caudodorsal parts of the dorsal telencephalic area, the ventral and commissural parts of the ventral telencephalic area, the preoptic area, the posterior tubercle, the anterior tuberal nucleus, and the posterior hypothalamic lobe. The medial and lateral mesencephalic reticular areas and the interpeduncular nucleus were richly innervated by TRHir fibers. In the rhombencephalon, the secondary gustatory nucleus received abundant TRHir fibers. TRHir fibers moderately innervated the ventrolateral and ventromedial reticular area and richly innervated the vagal lobe and Cajal's commissural nucleus.  

Neurons in a subset of retinorecipient nuclei [ i.e., suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), intergeniculate leaflet, olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), and lateral terminal nucleus] and autonomic nuclei [ i.e., paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW)] are labeled by late stages of infection.  

Two bilateral oblique transections were performed by aiming through the dorsal edge of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus at an angle of 50 degrees from the horizontal plane and vertical to the frontal plane.  

These effects occurred without elicitation of tonic-clonic seizure activity and were strong after iv NMDA in the frontal, prefrontal, and cingulate cortices, supraoptic nucleus, anterior lateral septum, and dentate gyrus. For EtOH, prominent Fos-LI induction was found in the central amygdala, dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, and paraventricular hypothalamus.  

To examine the anatomic basis of this phenomenon, we determined possible neuropathological changes in the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus, a midbrain neural center with a significant functional role in the control of pupil size. In contrast, the number of neurons in the somatic portion of the nucleus of the third cranial nerve (NCNIII) remained intact.  

Infected neurons in the brain were first observed in the A5 region, ventromedial medulla, rostral ventrolateral medulla, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, Barrington's nucleus, and caudal raphe. At intermediate survival times, the number of infected cells increased in previously infected areas, and infected neurons also appeared in lateral hypothalamus, A7 region, locus coeruleus, subcoeruleus region, nucleus of the solitary tract, and C3 cell group. At longer postinoculation intervals, infected neurons were found in additional hypothalamic areas, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, periaqueductal gray, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, caudal ventrolateral medulla, and area postrema.  

Central injections labeled large motoneurons within the abducens, trochlear or oculomotor nucleus, and smaller motoneurons lying mainly around the periphery of the motor nuclei. The peripheral neurons labeled from the lateral rectus muscle surround the medial half of the abducens nucleus: from superior oblique, they form a cap over the dorsal trochlear nucleus; from inferior oblique and superior rectus, they are scattered bilaterally around the midline, between the oculomotor nucleus; from both medial and inferior rectus, they lie mainly in the C-group, on the dorsomedial border of oculomotor nucleus. In the medial rectus distal injections, a "C-group extension" extended up to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and labeled dendrites within the supraoculomotor area.  

Postmortem study revealed Lewy bodies in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, substantia nigra. Edinger-Westphal nucleus, locus ceruleus, and dorsal vagal nucleus. Neuronal loss was found in above-mentioned sites, except for Edinger-Westphal nucleus and intermediolateral nucleus.  

The rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle (riMLF) contains premotor neurons essential for the generation of rapid vertical eye movements. The Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related cytoskeletal changes and beta-amyloid deposits in this nucleus were examined in 30 autopsy cases and compared to the involvement of three associated nuclei - Edinger-Westphal nucleus, nucleus of Darkschewitsch and interstitial nucleus of Cajal. In the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, in the nucleus of Darkschewitsch and most markedly in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, the pathological changes were significantly less severe than those in the riMLF.  

RESULTS: In this paradigm, ethanol dose-dependently increased c-Fos expression in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) and decreased expression in the dorsal tenia tecta compared with no-ethanol controls.  

In the rhombencephalon, spinal projections arise from the reticular formation, several parts of the octavolateral area, the locus coeruleus, the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, the raphe nucleus, sensory nuclei (trigeminal sensory nuclei and the dorsal column nucleus), and the nucleus of the solitary tract. In all species studied, the cerebellar nucleus and scattered cerebellar cells innervate the spinal cord, predominantly contralaterally. The tegmentospinal projections include projections from the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal, the red nucleus, and from anterodorsal, anteroventral, and posteroventral tegmental nuclei. In the forebrain, diencephalospinal projections originate in the ventral thalamus, posterior tubercle, the pretectal region, and the interstitial nucleus of the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis. The most rostrally located cells of origin of descending spinal pathways were found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the preoptic area and a subpallial region in the caudal telencephalic hemisphere, probably belonging to the amygdaloid complex.  

beta-Neuregulin-1 transcripts are expressed in the midbrain preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus at developmental stages that coincide with or precede the normal onset of macroscopic K(Ca) in CG neurons.  

A slight but statistically significant increase in c-Fos expression was found in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) of animals consuming 2% ethanol/10% sucrose for the first time.  

In the preoptic-hypothalamic region, ChAT-immunoreactive (ChAT-ir) cells were found in the preoptic nucleus, the vascular organ of the terminal lamina, and a small population in the caudal tuber. Many cells of the habenula were faintly ChAT-ir, but the neuropil of the interpeduncular nucleus showed intense ChAT immunoreactivity. In the pretectal region, ChAT-ir cells were observed only in the superficial pretectal nucleus. In the brainstem, the somatomotor and branchiomotor nuclei, the octavolateral efferent nucleus, and a cell group just rostral to the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus contained ChAT-ir neurons. In addition, the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus, the nucleus G of the isthmus, some locus coeruleus cells, and some cell populations of the vestibular nuclei and of the electroreceptive nucleus of the octavolateral region exhibited ChAT immunoreactivity. In the reticular areas of the brainstem, the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle, many reticular neurons of the rhombencephalon, and cells of the nucleus of the lateral funiculus were immunoreactive to this antibody. In the cerebellum, Golgi cells of the granule cell layer and some cells of the cerebellar nucleus were also ChAT-ir. In the rostral spinal cord, ChAT immunoreactivity was observed in cells of the motor column, the dorsal horn, the marginal nucleus (a putative stretch-receptor organ), and in interstitial cells of the ventral funiculus.  

658, 182-204) had predicted that ongoing cognitive activation should result in inhibition of the light reaction at the level of the oculomotor nucleus, n. The locus of interference with the light reaction was the Edinger-Westphal complex of the oculomotor nucleus, which is the motor center for the pupillary sphincter muscles.  

In the diencephalon, labeled cells were present in all the mid-line and intralaminar thalamic nuclei; the lateral posterior, pulvinar and suprageniculate nuclei; the ventral nucleus of the lateral geniculate body and the medial geniculate body. Additionally, Met-enk-li cells were seen in every hypothalamic nucleus except in the supraoptic. In the rhombencephalon, labeled cells were seen in the majority of the nuclei in the latero-dorsal pontine tegmentum, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, the trapezoid, vestibular medial, vestibular inferior and cochlear nuclei, the prepositus hypoglossal, the nucleus of the solitary tract and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the infratrigeminal nucleus and the caudal part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and in the rhombencephalic reticular formation. The distribution of fibers included additionally the substantia nigra, all the trigeminal nerve nuclei, the facial nucleus and a restricted portion of the inferior olive.  

In the brainstem, Y5 immunoreactivity was most intense in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, locus coeruleus and the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus.  

UCN mRNA expression is highest in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and lateral superior olive, with the most prominent terminal fields found in the lateral septum.  

Intravenous picrotoxin inhibits spinal nociceptive neurons through disinhibitory activation of neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and nucleus raphe dorsalis (NRD), where the descending antinociceptive system arises. This distribution of c-Fos expression is consistent with a role of PAG/NRD for antinociception; neurons with intense Fos-like immunoreactivity was also clustered in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW).  

Histological examination revealed widespread NIs with neuronal loss in restricted regions; neuronal loss was severe in the subthalamic nucleus, internal pallidum, substantia nigra, Edinger-Westphal nucleus and Purkinje cell layer.  

The olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN) is the first central nucleus in the pupillary light reflex arc (PLR). This type made symmetric synaptic contacts and may originate from the ventral part of the lateral geniculate nucleus. On account of the present observations, it can be concluded that retinal projections to the OPN use SP as a neuromodulator and synapse on NK1 receptor-containing dendrites of large neurons projecting to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.  

We examined the role and the type of muscarinic receptors within the choroid that are involved in these increases in choroidal blood flow, using electrical stimulation of the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal (EW) to activate the ciliary ganglion input to choroid in ketamine anesthetized pigeons.  

The light-dependence of the miosis indicates that the 5-HT1A receptor agonists can modulate the light reflex, possibly via the noradrenergic control of central cholinergic neurones in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus..  

Both peptides (850 pmol/kg, i.v.) increased the number of Fos immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, supraoptic nucleus, central amygdala, nucleus tractus solitarius and area postrema compared with vehicle injection. Urocortin induced a 4-fold increase in the number of Fos-positive cells in the supraoptic nucleus and a 3.4-fold increase in the lateral magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus compared with CRF. Neither CRF nor urocortin induced Fos expression in the lateral septal nucleus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, or hypoglossal nucleus.  

Furthermore, chronic alprazolam decreased basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, CRF mRNA expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala, and CRF(1) mRNA expression and receptor binding in the basolateral amygdala. In marked contrast, urocortin mRNA expression in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and CRF(2A) receptor binding in the lateral septum and ventromedial hypothalamus were increased.  

Anatomical studies have shown that the midbrain near-response region receives input from two deep cerebellar nuclei, the posterior interposed and the fastigial nucleus. Single-unit recording in the posterior interposed nucleus has revealed cells that increase their activity during the far-response, and the behavior of these neurons is reviewed. In addition, studies of a precerebellar nucleus, the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, have revealed some cells that increase their activity during the near-response and others that do so during the far-response.  

We had earlier found that urocortin messenger RNA (mRNA) expression within the mouse brain is confined to the region of the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus of the midbrain. By in situ hybridization analysis, we found that urocortin mRNA expression in the EW nucleus is responsive to stress, as mRNA levels increased approximately 3-fold after 3 h of restraint. As in wild-type (WT) mice, we had previously found that urocortin expression in CRHKO mouse brain was not detected outside of the EW nucleus. This up-regulation is not due to a lack of inhibition by glucocorticoids, as urocortin mRNA levels in the EW nucleus of CRHKO mice did not change after glucocorticoid supplementation. On the other hand, as the EW nucleus may play a role in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system and projects to various brain stem nuclei that express the CRH receptor, urocortin originating in the EW may play a role in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system during stress..  

Although neither the EW nor LSO are known to project to the forebrain, UCN-ir neurons in the EW were identified that project to the lateral septal nucleus, which houses a prominent UCN-ir terminal field. Although substantial UCN-ir projections were observed to several brainstem cell groups that express CRF-R2, including the dorsal raphe and interpeduncular nuclei and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), most prominent seats of CRF-R2 expression were found to contain inputs immunopositive for piscine urotensin I, but not rat UCN. The results define a central UCN system whose organization suggests a principal involvement in motor control and sensorimotor integration; its participation in stress-related mechanisms would appear to derive principally by virtue of projections to the spinal intermediolateral column, the NTS, and the paraventricular nucleus.  

Short-duration staining times by NADPHd histochemistry yielded intense labeling of structures that appeared to be the cap-like endings on ciliary neurons and the boutonal endings on choroidal neurons that arise from the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal (EW), and light or no postganglionic perikaryal staining.  

Specifically, c-Fos was significantly induced in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), the medial posteroventral portion of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeMPV), and the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW).  

SNAP-25a RNA transcripts were strongly expressed in the parasympathetic Edinger-Westphal nucleus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve but weakly expressed in motor nuclei such as the oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, hypoglossal and accessory nuclei and in motoneurons of mouse lumbar spinal cord. In contrast, SNAP-25b RNA transcripts were not detectable in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve but were strongly expressed in the oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, hypoglossal, and accessory nuclei and in the motoneurons of mouse lumbar spinal cord.  

Normal and CRH-deficient mice have an identical distribution of urocortin mRNA, which is confined to the region of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, and is absent from regions known to mediate stress-related behaviors. Since the Edinger-Westphal nucleus is not known to project to any brain regions believed to play a role in anxiety-like behavior, an entirely different pathway must be postulated for urocortin in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus to mediate these behaviors in CRH-deficient mice.  

Urocortin-like immunoreactivity shows a discrete localization within several regions including the supraoptic nucleus, the median eminence, Edinger-Westphal nucleus and the sphenoid nucleus. Regions containing high levels of corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity include the lateral septum, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, median eminence and locus coeruleus. There are a few regions that contain both urocortin-immunoreactive and corticotropin-releasing factor-immunoreactive cells, such as the supraoptic nucleus and the hippocampus.  

Our observations indicate that the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW), a known center for the control of pupillary function, is a selective target of Alzheimer pathology early in the course of the disease.  

The clinical subtypes of PD have different morphological lesion patterns: a) The akinetic-rigid type shows more severe cell loss in the ventrolateral part of substantia nigra zona compacta (SNZC) that projects to the dorsal putamen than the medial part projecting to caudate nucleus and anterior putamen, with negative correlation between SNZC cell counts, severity of akinesia-rigidity, and dopamine loss in the posterior putamen. d) Involvement of extranigral structures in PD includes the mesocortical dopaminergic system, the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, dorsal vagal nucleus and medullary nuclei, serotonergic dorsal raphe, nucleus basalis of Meynert and other cholinergic brainstem nuclei, e.g. Westphal-Edinger nucleus (controlling pupillomotor function), posterolateral hypothalamus and the limbic system, e.g. amygdaloid nucleus, part of hippocampal formation, limbic thalamic nuclei with prefrontal projections, etc.  

The nucleus was 2.4 mm long, 0.7 mm wide and 1.1 mm high. The Edinger-Westphal nucleus was small and was made up of elongated oval cell bodies that had a mean length of 33 +/- 5 microns and a mean diameter of 10 +/- 2 microns. The trochlear nucleus was located caudal to the oculomotor nucleus from which it was separated by a gap. The caudal central nucleus was indistinct.  

Competitive binding assays demonstrated oUcn to have a high affinity (Ki=0.1 nM) for the sheep CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP) and localization studies by in situ hybridization have shown that the distribution of oUcn messenger RNA in sheep brain shares with that of rUcn in rat brain a predominant locus of expression in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the midbrain, though some secondary sites of expression reported in rat are not conserved.  

Both retrograde and anterograde labelings were mainly found in: 1) the deep cerebellar nuclei; 2) the lateral lemniscus and paralemniscal nuclei, deep gray, and white intermediate layers of the superior colliculus, tegmental (laterodorsal and microcellular) nuclei, and central gray; and 3) the septohypothalamic nucleus, and lateral and posterior hypothalamic areas. The FR-labeled terminal-like elements were found in: 1) Crus 2 of the ansiform lobule, and the simple, 2, and 3 cerebellar lobules; 2) the subcoeruleus, deep mesencephalic, and Edinger-Westphal nuclei; and 3) the premammillary, lateral, and medial mammillary nuclei, retrochiasmatic part of the supraoptic nucleus, and the zona incerta. The FB-labeled neurons were found in: 1) the parapedunculopontine tegmental and cuneiform nuclei, caudal linear nucleus of the raphe, and adjacent area of the cerebral peduncle; 2) the thalamic posterior nuclear group and subparafascicular, parafascicular, and gelatinosus thalamic nuclei; 3) the parastrial amygdaloid and subthalamic nuclei; and 4) the olfactory tubercle, granular, and agranular insular cortex, parietal and lateral orbital cortices.  

Twenty nonreticular nuclei have spinal projections: descending trigeminal, retroambiguus, solitarius, posterior octaval, descending octaval, magnocellular octaval, ruber, Edinger-Westphal, nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, interstitial nucleus of Cajal, latral mesencephalic complex, periventricularis pretectalis pars dorsalis, central pretectal, ventromedial thalamic, posterior central thalamic, posterior dorsal thalamic, the posterior tuberculum, and nuclei B, F, and J.  

The pupillary light reflex (PLR) is under the control of retinal ganglion cells projecting to the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN). The OPN has a major projection to the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus, which exerts its parasympathetic action on the iris musculature via the ciliary ganglion. The present study in rats aimed to elucidate the possible projections from the AON and PAG to the EW nucleus. The anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) was iontophoretically injected into the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC), the nucleus of the posterior commissure (NPC), the nucleus of Darkschewitsch (ND) and the rostral part of the PAG. The INC, NPC and ND have small projections to the EW nucleus, whereas the rostral part of the PAG densely projects to the EW nucleus. Without exception INC, NPC, ND and PAG varicosities are presynaptic to dendritic profiles in the EW nucleus and contain electron dense mitochondria, round vesicles and make asymmetric synaptic contacts. The present observations allow the conclusion that the parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the EW nucleus are not only controlled by the OPN-EW pathway but also by indirect pathways running via the AON and PAG.  

The major route terminates in the ventral medulla, especially within the medial region which contains sympathetic premotor neurons lying within the raphe magnus and gigantocellular reticular nucleus, pars alpha.  

Seven days after the PRV injections, additional cell groups in the telencephalon (viz., bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial and lateral preoptic areas and medial preoptic nucleus), diencephalon (viz., subincertal nucleus, zona incerta as well as dorsal, dorsomedial, parafascicular, posterior and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei) and midbrain (viz., periaqueductal gray matter, precommissural nucleus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus and ventral tegmental area) were labeled.  

Choroidal blood flow (ChBF) in birds is regulated by a neural circuit whose components are the retina, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the medial division of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWM), the ciliary ganglion, and the choriod. Because lesions targeting EWM invariably resulted in damage to the adjoining lateral part of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWL), which controls pupillary constriction and accommodation, two additional control groups were studied.  

The somatic portion consisted of the lateral somatic cell column and the caudal central nucleus. Isolated multipolar neurons were also found in the periaqueductal gray matter, the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and the fibre bundles of the oculomotor nerve. The caudal central nucleus was 0.8 x 0.6 mm in size. The Edinger-Westphal nucleus consisted of the rostral, ventral and dorsal parts; the longest rostrocaudal diameter of this nucleus measured 7.1 mm.  

Furthermore, the Edinger-Westphal and precommissural nuclei project to all four PAG columns, while the dorsal raphe nucleus projects only to the ventrolateral and lateral columns.  

Neurons showing intense urocortin-like immunoreactivity (Ucn-IR) were found immunohistochemically in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), as well as in Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-W), in the rat brain.  

A large number of neurons with urocortin-like immunoreactivity were seen in the dorsolateral tegmental nucleus, in the linear and dorsal raphe nuclei, and in the substantia nigra. The most abundant immunoreactive (ir) perikarya were found in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Some neurons showed immunoreactivity in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, the nucleus of Darkeschewitsch, and the periaqueductal gray. Some faintly stained axon terminals were observed among urocortin-ir perikarya in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, in the central and periaqueductal gray, and in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.  

In the pretectal area, we found the tractus opticus accessorius and the nucleus opticus dorsolateralis. We have made some specifications about the location and nomenclature of the branches belonging to the optic tracts and two nuclei also related to the visual system (the nucleus commissura posterior and the nucleus pretectalis periventricularis pars dorsalis). The laminar nucleus and Edinger-Westphal nucleus are also identified and described in relation to the ciliary pathway..  

ChAT-immunoreactive perikarya and dendrites were present in the oculomotor, trochlear, abducent, trigeminal motor, facial and hypoglossal nuclei, nucleus of Edinger-Westphal, nucleus ambiguus, dorsal nucleus of the vagus, lamina IX of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cords, and intermediolateral nucleus of the thoracic spinal cord. The neuropil of the trigeminal motor, facial and hypoglossal nuclei, nucleus ambiguus and lamina IX of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cords contained many ChAT-positive bouton-like structures and they were seemingly in contact with perikarya and dendrites of motoneurons, suggesting that motoneurons in these nuclei are cholinoceptive as well as cholinergic. The oculomotor, trochlear and abducent nuclei, nucleus of Edinger-Westphal, dorsal nucleus of the vagus and intermediolateral nucleus of the thoracic spinal cord contained a small number of ChAT-immunoreactive bouton-like structures, but they did not contact with perikarya and dendrites of ChAT-positive neurons.  

The integration occurs at the primary input nucleus, the olivary pretectal nucleus, and at the output nucleus, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Restriction of the site of integration to one olivary pretectal nucleus by ablating the contralateral nucleus causes a substantial enhancement of the transplant-mediated response and a major reduction in the host eye-mediated response.  

In order to investigate whether this effect is due to direct inhibition of preganglionic pupilloconstrictor neurons in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWN), we injected opiate agonists into the EWN in male albino Charles River rats.  

The pterygopalatine and, to a lesser extent, the ciliary ganglia, but not the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, contained cells immunoreactive to NOS, suggesting that nitroxidergic innervation to pulley SM is mainly from the pterygopalatine ganglion.  

All of the regions of the central nervous system reported by other investigators to contain perikarya that synthesize prodynorphin-derived peptides, except the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, the accessory trigeminal nucleus, and the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, also contained perikarya that synthesize preprodynorphin messenger RNA. However, the olfactory bulb, the anterior olfactory nucleus, the islands of Calleja, the CA1-CA3 fields of the hippocampus, the septohippocampal nucleus, the diagonal band of Broca, the basal and cortical amygdaloid nuclei, the entopeduncular nucleus, the subthalamic nucleus, the superior colliculus, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, the dentate nucleus, the raphes linearis and pontis, the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the medial vestibular nucleus, the inferior olive, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve also contained preprodynorphin messenger RNA-synthesizing perikarya.  

The Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the oculomotor nuclear complex provides preganglionic parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. The caudal half of the olivary nucleus on each side broke into multiple clumps of label. Fragments of label also surrounded each olivary nucleus. In 5 of 6 monkeys, label from the olivary nucleus reached the Edinger-Westphal nucleus transneuronally. In Nissl-stained sections, the autoradiographic label corresponded to a distinct nucleus comprised of neurons that were smaller than neurons in nearby somatic subdivisions of the oculomotor complex. Transneuronal retinal input to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus mediating pupillary constriction terminates in a single, well-defined cell group in the midbrain..  

The first group included nuclei showing clustered, intensely labeled cells; these areas were restricted in extent and related to the maintenance of circadian rythms (intergeniculate leaf, suprachiasmatic nucleus, dorsal parts of either paraventricular thalamic nuclei or central gray), sleep-arousal cycle (supramamillary nucleus), or changes in arterial pressure (laterodorsal tegmental nucleus). The fourth group included nuclei free of labeling; these were areas that received the bulk of unimodal sensory/motor inputs (central inferior colliculus, pretectal optic nuclei, ventral medial geniculate nucleus, ventral anterior pretectal nucleus, dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, ventrobasal complex; zona incerta ventral, parafascicular thalamic nucleus) and are thus the most discriminative regarding specific modalities. Increases in the number of labeled cells 1 h postinjection were significant in only a restricted number of nuclei showing low basal expression (Edinger-Westphal nucleus and paraventricular, supraoptic, and lateral hypothalamic nuclei); time-related reductions in staining that were correlated to sleep or quiescence behaviors finally resulted in staining equal to or below that seen in control animals. Comparing the present results with those previously obtained at more caudal levels, it appears that subtelencephalic levels primarily driven by visceronociceptive inputs, i.e., those that increase and/or maintain their activity in parallel with the degree of nociception, are confined to brainstem-spinal cord junction levels and only comprise certain subdivisions of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nucleus medialis, nucleus commissuralis, and ventralmost part of area po.  

From the results of these experiments a position interval could be deduced for the leading descending fibers of each spinal-projecting nucleus at each age studied. At E17 fibers from the lateral vestibular nucleus, the raphe magnus nucleus and the gigantocellular reticular nucleus were present in the lumbosacral spinal cord; their descent along the spinal cord thus occurs before this stage. At E18 fibers from the parafascicular prerubral nucleus, the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, the mesencephalic reticular nucleus, the caudal pontine reticular nucleus, the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, the subcoerulean nucleus, the spinal vestibular nucleus, the interpolar spinal trigeminal nucleus, the raphe obscurus nucleus and the ventral medullary reticular nucleus arrived in the lumbosacral cord. At the same stage fibers from the oral and caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus reached their caudalmost extent in the spinal cord, respectively, the lower and upper thoracic cord. At E19 fibers from the oral pontine reticular nucleus, the parvocellular reticular nucleus, the ventral gigantocellular reticular nucleus and the ambiguous nucleus first appeared in the lumbosacral cord. At E20 fibers from Darkschewitsch's nucleus, the paralemniscal and parabrachial nuclei, cell group A5, the locus coeruleus, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus-alpha, the raphe pallidus nucleus, the paramedian reticular nucleus, and from the dorsal medullary reticular nucleus arrived in the lumbosacral cord. Last to arrive in the lumbar cord during the prenatal period, at E21, were fibers from the posterior commissural nucleus, the red nucleus, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, the paragigantocellular reticular nucleus, the medial vestibular nucleus, Roller's nucleus, and the solitary nucleus. Fibers from the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and from the lateral hypothalamic area only arrived in the lumbosacral cord at P1, followed by fibers from the incertal nucleus at P4. A transient spinal projection from an unknown group of neurons located immediately lateral to and partly intermingled with the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus arrived in the lumbosacral spinal cord at E18 and had disappeared at P1. This cell group, called Gr?, closely resembled the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Me5). The neurons of Gr? are mainly round, but in the caudal part of the nucleus some horizontally oriented fusiform neurons were observed. The distance between the source nucleus and the entrance to the target seems of influence only in the most extreme cases (diencephalic source nuclei and the cerebral cortex).  

These include the extended amygdala (including the central nucleus of amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminals and nucleus accumbens), regions processing sensory information (including the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus) and in stress-related areas (including the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, nucleus of the solitary tract and several neocortical areas). However, while this low dose of alcohol was unable to counteract the environmental novelty-induced c-Fos expression in these areas, it increased c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of amygdala (an effect similar to the one observed previously for diazepam).  

The monoclonal antibody 5F10 was used to examine the distribution of PMCA in chick Edinger-Westphal neurons, a population of cholinergic preganglionic neurons whose cells bodies reside in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in the brainstem and whose axons form synaptic terminals on parasympathetic neurons in the ciliary ganglion.  

To clarify the role of the pretectal nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) in ocular following, we traced NOT efferents with tritiated leucine in the monkey and identified the cell groups they targeted. Strong local projections from the NOT were demonstrated to the superior colliculus and the dorsal terminal nucleus bilaterally and to the contralateral NOT. NOT efferents terminated in all accessory optic nuclei (AON) ipsilaterally; contralateral AON projections arose from the pretectal olivary nucleus embedded in the NOT. Descending pathways contacted precerebellar nuclei: the dorsolateral and dorsomedial pontine nuclei, the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, and the inferior olive. Direct projections from NOT to the ipsilateral nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (ppH) appeared to be weak, but retrograde tracer injections into rostral ppH verified this projection; furthermore, the injections demonstrated that AON efferents also enter this area. Efferents from the NOT also targeted ascending reticular networks from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and the locus coeruleus. Rostrally, NOT projections included the magnocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus (lgn); the pregeniculate, peripeduncular, and thalamic reticular nuclei; and the pulvinar, the zona incerta, the mesencephalic reticular formation, the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, and the hypothalamus.  

Mesencephalic VT/MT producing cells were confined to the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal and were only detectable during a brief period in development (E7.25-E10).  

We describe the clinical observation of isolated pupil involvement, attributed to a lesion of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus as a consequence of a mesencephalic haematoma in the context of closed craneo-encephalic trauma. We emphasize the importance of our case as being the first time an isolated lesion of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus has been described in topographic relation to a mesencephalic haematoma..  

Electrical stimulation in pigeons of the input from the medial subdivision of the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal (EWM) to the choroidal neurons of the ipsilateral ciliary ganglion, which themselves have input to the choroidal blood vessels of the ipsilateral eye, increases choroidal blood flow (ChBF). Since the EWM receives input from the contralateral suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which in turn receives contralateral retinal input, the present study sought to determine if activation of the SCN by microstimulation or by retinal illumination of the contralateral eye would also yield increases in ChBF in that same eye.  

In marked contrast, methyllycaconitine is 1000-fold less potent at blocking nicotinic responses in the lateral spiriform nucleus. The relatively low affinity of the toxin for nicotinic receptors in the lateral spiriform nucleus is consistent with the known properties of these receptors, which include a high affinity for [ 3H]nicotine and a lack of sensitivity to alpha- and kappa-bungarotoxin. On the basis of high affinity for methyllycaconitine and insensitivity to alpha-bungarotoxin, the nicotinic receptors in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus are unlike any previously described nicotinic receptor subtype..  

The nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) is associated with the generation of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), whereas the olivary pretectal nucleus (ol), which lies embedded in the primate NOT, is believed to be essential for the pupillary light reflex. In this anatomical study of the pretectum, projections from NOT and ol to structures around the oculomotor nucleus were traced in the monkey, to determine which cell groups they innervated. 3[ H]-leucine injections were placed into NOT and ol, and labelled terminals were observed just outside the classical oculomotor nucleus (nIII), in the "C-group' and midline cell clusters, both of which contain small motoneurons of the extraocular eye muscles. In addition, there were strong projections to the lateral visceral cell column of the Edinger-Westphal complex (lvc), but not to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) itself. NOT efferents terminated over the ipsilateral medial accessory nucleus of Bechterew (nB), but not over the adjacent nucleus Darkschewitsch.  

In situ hybridization with an S35-labeled agrin cRNA probe was used to characterize agrin expression in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus during development. Agrin mRNA was detected in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus at all time points studied, from embryonic day 7 (E7, Hamburger and Hamilton stage 31) through newly hatched chicks. Agrin mRNA expression in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus at E7, E8, E9, and E10 was significantly higher than at E12.  

METHODS: Resting ChBF and a increase in ChBF elicited by electrical stimulation of the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal (EW) were measured transclerally by laser Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized pigeons before and after administration of a selective inhibitor of neural NO synthase, 7-Nitroindazole (7NI; 50 mg/kg given intraperitoneally); a nonselective NO synthase inhibitor, Ng-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 30 mg/kg given intravenously); L-arginine (300 mg/kg given intravenously) followed by 7NI (50 mg/kg given intraperitoneally); or vehicle.  

Fos-like immunoreactivity that was found in the vocalizing but not in the non-vocalizing animals was located in the dorsomedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, ventrolateral premotor cortex, sensorimotor face cortex, insula, inferior parietal cortex, superior temporal cortex, claustrum, entorhinal and parahippocampal cortex, basal amygdaloid nucleus, anterior and dorsomedial hypothalamus, nucleus reuniens, lateral habenula, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, ventral and dorsolateral midbrain tegmentum, nucleus cuneiformis, sagulum, pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei, ventral raphe, periambigual reticular formation and solitary tract nucleus. lateral habenula, Edinger-Westphal nucleus), the available evidence speaks against such a role.  


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