Bed Nucleus Of Stria Terminalis


Furthermore, pairing with a female was associated with elevated CRF mRNA in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and partner loss elicited a pronounced increase in circulating corticosteroid and adrenal weight.  

We show that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) efficient relays cortical excitation to dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA).  

The ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTvl) receives direct input from two specific subpopulations of neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS).  

The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and noradrenergic neurotransmission therein mediate cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats.  

To determine neuronal activation, the expression of the immediate-early genes c-fos and activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein (Arc) was studied in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), bed nucleus stria terminalis (BST) and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), which are areas involved in the neuroendocrine and central stress response.  

Apart from common vomeronasal recipient structures in the amygdala, only the anterior accessory olfactory bulb projects to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and only the posterior accessory olfactory bulb projects to the dorsal anterior amygdala.  

Fos was measured as a marker of neuronal activation in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTv) and ventral tegmental area (VTA).  

In this work, we acquired five PET scans using a highly selective D2/D3 dopamine antagonist, 18F-fallypride, to track changes in dopamine receptor availability, as measured by the distribution volume ratio (DVR), through the course of DBS in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in a nonhuman primate.  

The sexually dimorphic vasopressin system of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is the most sensitive neurotransmitter system regulated by sex steroids in rats and mice.  

The abolition of reinstatement by drug administration was not due to state-dependent learning, as rats treated with the drug prior to both reinstatement training or testing also failed a-Helical CRF9-41 in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis suggested that this area is a site at which central CRF is involved in this form of relapse..  

Adrenal glucocorticoids have been implicated in the circadian regulation of clock genes expression in peripheral tissues as well as in the control of the rhythms of expression of PER2 in certain limbic forebrain regions, such as the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in rats.  

Changes observed concerned two brain areas that play a key role in the control of male sexual behavior, the medial preoptic nucleus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis therefore suggesting a potential role of olfaction in the control of reproduction.  

Expression of GAD67 mRNA was increased in many forebrain regions including all hippocampal cell layers, peri-paraventricular nucleus, bed nucleus stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens core and motor cortex, suggesting that long-term voluntary exercise enhances forebrain GABA synthesis capacity but in a region-specific manner.  

We demonstrated the crucial role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in the negative affective component of somatic and visceral pain induced by intraplantar formalin and intraperitoneal acetic acid injections, respectively, in rats.  

The central extended amygdala (EAc) is an ensemble of highly interconnected limbic structures of the anterior brain, and forms a cellular continuum including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh).  

We previously reported that activation of mGluR5 with the group I mGluR agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) can induce a long-term depression (DHPG-LTD) of glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and that ex vivo induction of this LTD is disrupted by repeated in vivo administration of cocaine.  

DSAP lesions depleted NA terminals in the PVN and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, reduced the number of NA cell bodies in the NST and VLM, attenuated PVN Fos activation after LPS, and attenuated LPS-induced increases in plasma corticosterone.  

Employing both pharmacological and genetic approaches, we investigated the role of the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(2)-AR) in extinction of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) and glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST).  

Low and high E(2) treatments enhanced the SD-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the laterodorsal subnucleus of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis and the tuberomammillary nucleus, and in orexin-containing hypothalamic neurons, with no effect on the basal forebrain and locus coeruleus.  

We found that areas previously associated with offensive aggression in adult hamsters, including the ventrolateral hypothalamus, the medial amygdala, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, also showed enhanced c-Fos expression after play fighting.  

Disruption of TIP39 projections to the medial prefrontal cortex, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hypothalamus and amygdala likely account for the fear- and anxiety-related phenotype of TIP39-KO.  

The correlation between dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and male sexual behavior was examined in middle-aged rats.  

Numbers of PER1-labeled cells were rhythmic not only within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the locus of the primary circadian clock in mammals, but also in the peri-suprachiasmatic region, the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central amygdala, and the nucleus accumbens.  

In some brain regions discrimination training had no effect on ethanol-induced Fos-IR changes (caudate putamen, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and CA1 region of the hippocampus).  

Relative to saline treatment, neonatal OT treatment induced to males a significant decrease of Fos expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) as well as a significant increase in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), the dorsal part of the lateral septal nucleus (LSD) and the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA).  

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been implicated in stress responses and negative affective states, such as anxiety, fear, and aversion.  

This paper will discuss nature, cause and possible significance of these sex differences, focusing on vasopressin projections from the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the medial amygdaloid nucleus, which show some of the most consistently found sex differences among vertebrates..  

For instance, the functions and anatomy of the AVT/AVP projections to the pituitary (which arise in the preoptic area and hypothalamus) are strongly conserved, whereas the functions and anatomy of AVT/AVP circuits arising in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) are species-specific and change rapidly over evolutionary time.  

Norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the extended amygdala, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, shell of the nucleus accumbens, and central nucleus of the amygdala, are generally involved in behavioral responses to environmental and internal stressors.  

It is therefore intriguing that expression of male copulatory behavior induces in quail and rats a similar pattern of c-fos expression in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTM) and parts of the amygdala.  

In the ventral forebrain, sucrose sham licking increased Fos in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central nucleus of amygdala, and the shell of nucleus accumbens.  

We have shown previously that unconditioned stressors inhibit neurons of the lateral/capsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEAl/c) and oval division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTov), which form part of the central extended amygdala.  

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in the forebrain shows sexual dimorphism in its neuroanatomical connectivity and neurochemical characteristics.  

Additionally, a medial hypothalamic defensive circuit also appears not necessary for unconditioned freezing to TMT, whereas circuits that include the medial nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are essential.  

In some areas, such as the entorhinal cortex, it is present as the only ER, whereas in other regions, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area, it can be found co-expressed with ERalpha, often within the same neurones.  

To investigate the neural basis for differences in the circadian systems of diurnal and nocturnal mammals, we examined PER1 expression in the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST-OV), and in the basolateral (BLA) and the central (CEA) amygdala of male grass rats kept in a 12:12 light/dark cycle.  

Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray) that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences.  

The central extended amygdala (EAc) is a network formed by the central amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

The basal forebrain contains several interdigitating anatomical structures, including the diagonal band of Broca, the basal nucleus of Meynert, the ventral striatum, and also cell groups underneath the globus pallidus that bridge the centromedial amygdala to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

A moderate network of fibers covered the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area, and a particularly dense fiber innervation of the nucleus accumbens and substantia innominata was observed.  

A lesser density of hFF2 neurons was identified in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, lateral and posterior hypothalamic areas whereas few cells were visualized in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, perifornical nucleus, horizontal limb of the diagonal band, ventral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus basalis of Meynert and ventral tegmental area.  

Previously, we found that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is also necessary for the enhanced learning after stress in male rats.  

Fos-IR specific to PM self-stimulation was also observed within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and nucleus accumbens (NAS)-shell, but not within NAS-core, caudate putamen, medial prefrontal or orbital cortices.  

Induction of Fos expression by acute immobilization stress was comparable following CIH in several HPA-modulatory brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala.  

Previously, we showed that daytime restricted access to a highly palatable complete meal replacement, Ensure Plus (Ensure), shifts the rhythm of expression of the clock protein PER2 in limbic forebrain areas including the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov), central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dentate gyrus (DG), and induces a rhythm in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) in food deprived (restricted feeding), but not free-fed rats (restricted treat).  

Animal studies suggest that such an effect may be mediated by the effects of sexual dimorphism in limbic structures, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

Measuring fear-potentiated startle test using conditioned stimuli that vary in length we suggest that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the lateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST(L)) are involved in short-term versus long-term fear responses we call phasic versus sustained fear, respectively.  

We compared the number of vasopressin-expressing cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala and the density of vasopressin-immunoreactive fibers in several brain regions of male and female wild type and PRKO mice using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.  

These effects may be based on changes in neural activities of relevant brain regions including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), lateral septal nucleus (LS), medial preoptic area (MPOA), the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON), mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD), ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamic (VMH), the medial amygdala (MeA) and central amygdala (CeA)..  

In most vertebrates studied, males have more vasopressin (VP) cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, or homologous vasotocin cells in nonmammalian species, than females. As expected, males showed denser VP-immunoreactive fibers than females in the lateral septum, a projection area of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

There is conflicting evidence concerning the role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in fear and anxiety-elicited behavior.  

More importantly, prior treatment with an estrogen receptor antagonist partially reduced D1-like receptor agonist-induced Fos expression only within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the central amygdala.  

The androgen receptor (AR) was expressed strongly in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the medial preoptic area, the arcuate nucleus, the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the diencephalon.  

Instead, neural morphology is influenced by breeding status, such that breeders, regardless of sex, have more neurons than subordinates in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), and larger overall volumes of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and medial amygdala (MeA).  

METHODS: We determined the basal mRNA and protein levels of BDNF by in situ RT-PCR and immuno-histochemical procedure, respectively, in the amygdaloid [ central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), medial nucleus of amygdala (MeA), and basolateral amygdala (BLA)], nucleus accumbal (NAc shell and core), and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) [ lateral BNST (lBNST), medial BNST (mBNST), and ventral BNST (vBNST)] brain structures of P and NP rats.  

Some of these labeled fibers crossed through the lateral hypothalamus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and substantial innominata.  

However, during relocation they displayed increased amygdala reactivity and in response to threat they displayed increased reactivity of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

Furthermore, we examined the role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), one of the brain regions forming the extended amygdala.  

As adults, neonatal GDX rats also showed a decrease in the number of androgen receptor and arginine vasopressin-positive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the medial nucleus of the amygdala, and both of these responses were reversed with postnatal testosterone treatment.  

We have previously reported that aromatase P450 (AromP450) protein expression is enhanced by both androgens and estrogens in the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (prBST) and posterodorsal part of the medial amygdaloid nucleus (pdMAm) of the adult rat but is not altered in the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeAm) even after sex-steroid withdrawal or supplementation.  

Lower but distinct GR-ir was observed in the internal granule cell layer of the olfactory bulbs, dorsal and lateral pallium, striatum, various subfields of the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), optic tectum, various tegmental nuclei, locus coeruleus, raphe nuclei, reticular nuclei, and the nuclei of the trigeminal motor nerves.  

central extended amygdala (CeA) and dorsolateral nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTdl) as well as that for Ucn1 in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW).  

Retrograde labeling from the nPGi was prominent in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), posterior hypothalamus, precommissural nucleus, deep mesencephalic nucleus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of both sexes.  

These include: the medial preoptic nucleus; median and lateral preoptic area; medial division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis; paraventricular nucleus; central nucleus of the amygdala; dorsal hypothalamic area/dorsomedial hypothalamus; lateral hypothalamic area; lateral, ventrolateral and dorsomedial divisions of the periaqueductal grey; dorsal raphe nuclei; parabrachial nuclei; K├Âlliker-Fuse nucleus; intertrigeminal region; rostral ventrolateral medulla; lateral parafacial region; and the ventral respiratory group.  

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) plays a prominent role in brain integration of acute responses to stressful stimuli.  

Litter presence before testing affected Fos expression due to handling or elevated plus-maze exposure only in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsal and ventral preoptic area, ventromedial hypothalamus, lateral habenula, and supramammillary nucleus.  

The frontal cortex (FC), amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and cerebellum were analyzed for tissue content of norepinephrine following withdrawal in morphine dependent rats.  

Ethanol self-administration in msP rats was suppressed after N/OFQ microinjection into the CeA but not into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis or the basolateral amygdala.  

We have focused on the dorsal lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis because of the reported involvement of dorsal lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis dopamine in ethanol intake, and the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum because of their dense dopaminergic innervation. After either a chronic intermittent exposure or continuous exposure regimen, mice were killed, and tissue punches collected from the dorsal lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens, and striatum for Western analysis.  

Ethanol administration increased the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the infralimbic (+57.5%) and prelimbic (+105.3%) cortices, nucleus accumbens shell region (+88.2%), medial part of the central nucleus of the amygdala (+160%), and lateral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (+198.8%) compared with the water-treated group. In the nucleus accumbens shell region, central nucleus of the amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, more than 80% of Fos-immunoreactive neurons were GABAergic after ethanol administration.  

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is a brain structure located at the interface of the cortex and the cerebrospinal trunk.  

Nevertheless, animals treated with L-NAME at 200 nmol into the lateral ventricle (LV), basolateral amygdala (BLA), dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) matter, lateral septal nucleus (LSN), but not in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), displayed impaired AVOID2 in comparison to the control group.  

Previous studies have shown that distinct neuronal pathways modulate different emotional behaviours: while the amygdala plays a key role in fear-conditioned-to-cue stimuli, the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) is implicated in anxiety behaviour and responses to contextual stimuli.  

The lateral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTL) is a component of the subpallial amygdala located near the ventral sulcus of the lateral ventricle, but its limits have not been well defined in birds. A central region, referred to as lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis pars densocellularis (BSTLdc), is characterized by numerous tightly packed cell bodies, most of which are GABA-immunoreactive (ir), and two peripheral regions with lower cellular density displaying a moderate GABA expression, referred to as lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, plexiform part 1 (BSTLp1) and plexiform part 2 (BSTLp2), respectively.  

We investigated the origin of the avian bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and other parts of the avian subpallial amygdala, by studying the expression of the LIM-homeobox chick genes Lhx6 (cLhx6) and Lhx7/8 (cLhx7/8) in the embryonic chicken telencephalon.  

In mammals, both divisions consist of an intra-amygdaloid portion and a part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

These include the infralimbic, prelimbic, dorsal agranular insular, and entorhinal cortices, the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus, dorsal tenia tecta, claustrum, lateral septum, dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens (core and shell), olfactory tubercle, bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), medial, central, cortical, and basal nuclei of amygdala, and the suprachiasmatic, arcuate, and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus.  

The current study tested the hypothesis that chronic loss of inhibitory GABAergic tone in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a region implicated in anxiety behavior, results in generalized anxiety disorder-like behaviors without panic-like responses (i.e., tachycardia, hypertension and tachypnea) following panicogenic stimuli (e.g., sodium lactate infusions).  

Testosterone treatment increased prodynorphin mRNA expression in the supraoptic nucleus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the breeding season but not during the non-breeding season.  

We aimed 1) to evaluate if electrical stimulation in the nucleus accumbens (N ACC), the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) or the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) can decrease water intake in the schedule-induced polydipsia model; 2) to compare water intake between these groups for different stimulation amplitudes; and 3) to compare the effect of low frequency (2 Hz) with high frequency (100 Hz) stimulation.  

In a previous study, we demonstrated that androgenic-anabolic steroids increased aromatase expression in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis and preoptic area in rat brain, as evaluated using autoradiography with [ 11C]vorozole, a potential positron emission tomography tracer for aromatase. Results indicated a significant increase of [ 11C]vorozole binding by nandrolone decanoate in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area, as in our previous study. Flutamide treatment, on the other hand, decreased [ 11C]vorozole binding in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area, and medial amygdala.  

However, microinjection of BMI had no significant effect on Fos expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, another forebrain area implicated in stress and anxiety.  

CRF gene expression tended to be higher in the central amygdala and it was significantly higher in the dorsal region of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) of RLA-I rats, while no differences appeared in the ventral region of BNST.  

For instance, the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the subfornical organ were highly labelled, as were the periaqueductal gray and the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that prolactin mRNA was expressed in the medial preoptic area, periventricular preoptic nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, particularly the ventral region.  

Detailed in situ hybridization analysis in the mouse brain showed abundant expression in feeding-related nuclei of the brainstem and hypothalamus, such as the nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema, and arcuate, paraventricular, and supraoptic nuclei as well as in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis). By contrast to the preoptic area, CORT increased CRF-ir in the medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, whereas metyrapone decreased CRF-ir in the medial amygdala.  

Furthermore, two subcortical regions, namely, the nucleus centralis of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, showed intense P2X(1)R neuronal labeling.  

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is a basal forebrain structure considered to be part of a cortico-striato-pallidal system that coordinates autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioural physiological responses.  

We demonstrate here that in male Japanese quail a sexual conditioned stimulus (CS) also enhances activity in two brain regions that mediate sexual behavior, the medial preoptic area and the medial part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PAH), lateral hypothalamic area (LH), paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), locus coeruleus (LC), lateral parabrachial nucleus (Pbl), the complex of the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMX), numbers of neurons expressing c-Fos protein were much higher in test than in control experiments.  

BACKGROUND: The central extended amygdala (cEA) which includes the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the lateral posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTLP), has been proposed to play a key role in excessive ethanol consumption in humans (Koob and Le Moal, 2005 Nat Neurosci 8:1442).  

Neurons in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus and the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) play an important role in the neuroendocrine control of the reproductive cycle, mating behaviors and nociception.  

Finally, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal did not enhance basal or forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis or periaqueductal gray.  

Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that males housed under short days have increased expression of estrogen receptor alpha in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial amygdala, and central amygdala.  

Utilizing a variety of anatomical and pharmacological methods, we provide evidence that lactate, via osmosensitive periventricular pathways, activates neurons in the compromised DMH/PeF, which relays this signal to forebrain limbic structures such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis to mediate anxiety responses, and specific brainstem sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways to mediate the respiratory and cardiovascular components of the panic-like response.  

RESULTS: The distinction between phasic fear to imminent threat and sustained anxiety to temporally uncertain danger is suggested by psychopharmacological and behavioral evidence from ethological studies and can be traced back to distinct neuroanatomical systems, the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

These populations are located within the PVN, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), medial amygdala (MeA) and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN).  

Co-labelling of PRV and CRF was found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the central amygdala.  

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a nucleus that relays between higher order processing centers and classical reward and stress pathways, receives dense noradrenergic inputs that are known to influence behavioral paradigms of both anxiety and stress-induced relapse to drug seeking.  

The anteroventral region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) stimulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to acute stress.  

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We have previously shown that noradrenaline microinjected into the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) elicited pressor and bradycardiac responses in unanaesthetized rats.  

We also hypothesize that this up-regulation of aggression is partially mediated by changes in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the lateral extent of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTl) and lateral septum (LS).  

The posterior PVT was also found to provide a strong projection to the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), regions associated with the extended amygdala.  

Studies which can specifically elicit fear or anxiety and evaluate associated brain regions, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) may provide a clearer understanding of the biologic underpinnings of PTSD and bridge the knowledge between animal neurobiology and human studies..  

The medial amygdala and a large part of the extended amygdala (including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis) consist of subdivisions or cell groups that derive from subpallial, pallial (ventral pallium), or extratelencephalic progenitor domains.  

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is highly sensitive to the inhibitory effect of N/OFQ on CRF-induced anorexia.  

Previous studies show that activation of the gustatory cortex (GC), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and lateral hypothalamus (LH) inhibits PBN taste responses, GABAergic neurons are present in these forebrain regions, and GABA reduces the input resistance of PBN neurons.  

Both drugs reversed novelty-induced changes in c-fos expression in the lateral division of the posterolateral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (STLP), cingulate cortex (Cg), and dorsal field CA2 of the hippocampus (dCA2).  

We examined the neuroanatomical basis of these effects with injections of N/OFQ (0.01-1.0nmol) into the lateral ventricle, the amygdala, and the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) in independent groups of well-handled rats under low stress conditions.  

Estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta immunostaining did not differ in the lateral septum, medial preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, or medial amygdala.  

The lateral septal area is rich in vasopressin V(1A) receptors and is densely innervated by vasopressinergic axons, originating mainly from the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the amygdala.  

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a peptide neurotransmitter with high numbers of cell bodies found in limbic regions of the rat brain including the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) as well as in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN).  

Acute VNS significantly increased c-Fos staining in the nucleus of the solitary tract, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, parabrachial nucleus, ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and locus coeruleus but not in the cingulate cortex or dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN).  

Here, we have used a combination of whole-cell patch clamp recording with highly selective agonists (LY354740 and LY379268) and immunoelectron microscopy to examine structure-function relationships for mGluR2/3 in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST).  

Additionally, the number of neurons with alpha 1-adrenergic receptor-like immunoreactivity in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) was found to be much lower in LgA rats than in ShA and drug-naive rats.  

Exposure to the holeboard induced activation in multiple brain regions previously implicated in anxiety-like behavior, including the lateral septum (LS), paraventricular (PVN) and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei (DMH), basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala (BLA, CEA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and periaquiductal grey (PAG), compared to homecage controls.  

To identify distinct transcriptional patterns between the major subcortical dopamine targets commonly studied in addiction we studied differences in gene expression between the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and dorsal striatum (dStr) using microarray analysis.  

Results show that MR rats that acquire a later maternal experience show increases in cell survival in parts of the excitatory limb of the maternal neural network (bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and nucleus accumbens), but no changes in the inhibitory limb (amygdala).  

In addition, THC promoted a greater increase in c-Fos expression in Nrg1 HET mice than WT mice in the central nucleus of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

These effects have been demonstrated at the level of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and along the different nodes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.  

The organization of projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA) to the paraventricuilar hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) has been studied in order to understand the anatomical substrates of amygdaloid modulation of endocrine and autonomic functions, and a hypothesis that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) may act as a relay site between the CeA and PVH has been proposed.  

Significant increment of Fos expression in the posterior-dorsal medial amygdala (MePD) and the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) in forebrain, as well as the accessory olfactory bulb, was observed in both groups of subjects.  

Insulin-associated changes in c-Fos(+) cell numbers were evident in the arcuate nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and substantia nigra pars compacta, concomitant with elevated leptin levels and reduced chow intake.  

We predicted that similar effects would occur in Japanese quail after repeated sexual experience within brain areas involved in sexual behavior, namely, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), and the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA), an avian homolog of medial amygdala.  

In males, OT antagonist increased ER alpha expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

Prodynorphin neurons in the extended amygdala were observed mostly in the medial and central regions of the lateral CeA and the oval of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST).  

However, PMX53 did not alter LPS-induced responses in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus tractus solitarius and ventrolateral medulla.  

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been reported to release increased levels of extracellular dopamine (DA) following the systemic administration of abused drugs in outbred rats.  

Another transient population of transgene/Egr-1 cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is maintained until pre-adolescence.  

Furthermore, for this contrast, we found also increased activation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST).  

The present study was designed to investigate the role of the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in the onset and maintenance of maternal behavior in sheep.  

Similar experiments with dextran amines in the olfactory bulbs plus FluoroGold in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis indicate that neurons projecting through the stria terminalis could be integrating olfactory and vomeronasal inputs. While both inputs clearly converge in areas classically considered olfactory-recipient (nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, and cortex-amygdala transition zone) or vomeronasal-recipient (ventral anterior amygdala, bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, and anteroventral medial amygdaloid nucleus), segregation is virtually complete at posterior levels such as the posteromedial and posterolateral cortical amygdalae.  

Our immunohistochemistry suggested ASIC1a is expressed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial amygdala, and periaqueductal gray, which are thought to play important roles in the generation and expression of innate fear.  

We studied the involvement of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTl) and nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) in generation of ethanol withdrawal symptoms, with particular focus on anxiety-like behavior using a social interaction test.  

Elevations in CRH hnRNA were also identified in hippocampus, the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and globus pallidus at 60 and 120 min following KA and in the piriform cortex, and central nucleus of the amygdala at 120 min after KA.  

Peak OTR mRNA expression was observed at parturition in the SON, brainstem regions, medial preoptic area (mPOA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BnST), and olfactory bulbs, but there was no change in the paraventricular nucleus and lateral septum.  

The ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBNST) potently regulates dopaminergic cell firing in the VTA, and has been implicated in the behavioral actions of ethanol.  

In both species ERalpha-immunoreactive staining in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) was increased in short vs.  

PRir was moderately abundant in the limbic region, particularly in subdivisions of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and hippocampus.  

The decrease in the number of c-Fos positive nuclei occurred particularly in the caudal ventrolateral medulla, the medial, intermediate and central parts of the nucleus tractus solitarius, area postrema, parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventromedial preoptic area, central amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and to a lesser extent in the ventrolateral part of the nucleus tractus solitarius and rostral ventrolateral medulla.  

Finally, MS subjects had significantly more stress-induced Fos positive cells, an estimate of neuronal activation, in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), each of which plays an important role in organizing the biobehavioral response to stress.  

Stereological analyses revealed that neural morphology depends on status, such that breeders, regardless of sex, had more cells than subordinates in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and a larger volume of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and medial amygdala.  

Here, we studied the effects of a daily restricted presentation of highly palatable complete meal replacement, chocolate Ensure Plus (Ensure) in food-deprived (restricted feeding, RF) and free-fed (restricted treat, RT) rats, on the expression of the clock protein, Period2 (PER2) in regions of the brain involved in motivational and emotional regulation; these include the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov), the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), the basolateral amygdala (BLA), the dentate gyrus (DG) and the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH).  

We investigated the sex differences in the mRNA expression of androgen receptors, estrogen receptor alpha, and aromatase in two brain nuclei involved in reproductive and aggressive behavior in the black coucal, the nucleus taeniae and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. In the bed nucleus there were no sex differences in the receptor or aromatase expression.  

The anterolateral group of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST(ALG)) plays a critical role in a diverse array of behaviors, although little is known of the physiological properties of neurons in this region.  

FOS expression after a drug-free CS exposure was significantly higher in Before-group mice than in control mice in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (Experiment 1) and anterior ventral tegmental area (Experiments 1-2).  

In the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, one of several nuclei in a neural circuit that controls aggression, estrogen-dependent gene expression is increased in long days but not in short days, suggesting that estrogens decrease aggression by driving estrogen-dependent gene expression.  

Reports, as reviewed here, suggest that two important regions of the limbic system, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), control different aspects of emotional behaviour.  

The posteromedial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMPM) is an important component of the extended amygdala that is sexually dimorphic in rats.  

Sexual activity (evidenced in males that ejaculated two or four times) increased c-Fos levels in the anteromedial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, claustrum, entorhinal cortex, medial preoptic area, nucleus accumbens core, suprachiasmatic nucleus and supraoptic nucleus; however, sexual satiety did not modify c-Fos expression in these regions.  

Similarly, the relative optical density of PrRP-ir fibers of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) in the proestrus was decreased compared with those in other three groups.  

Extensive networks of immunopositive fibers were observed in the lateral hypothalamus, the preoptic region, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and along the third ventricle.  

CLP increased Fos immunostaining in the nucleus of tractus solitarius (NTS), ventrolateral medulla, medullary raphe, parabrachial nucleus, hypothalamus, amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and preoptic region.  

These receptors may be under the regulation of reciprocal GABAergic inputs from forebrain components of the mesolimbic path such as the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a classic EtOH reward substrate, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, a substrate recently implicated in EtOH reinforcement, forming a self-regulating feedback loop.  

These social interactions induced increases in neural activation, indicated by increased density of Fos-immunoreactive staining (Fos-ir) in several brain regions including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), medial preoptic area (MPOA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), anterior cortical (AcA), and medial nuclei (MeA) of the amygdala.  

Neuron number in the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp) is greater in adult male mice than in females.  

The extended amygdala (central medial amygdala, stria terminalis or dorsal component, ventral component, and bed nucleus of stria terminalis) receives inputs primarily from the limbic cortical areas, is particularly modulated by the prefrontal cortex, and receives also direct connections from the thalamus that enables the amygdala to generate nonspecific and quick responses through its projections to the hypothalamus and to the brainstem.  

Nicotine increased c-fos mRNA expression more robustly in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens shell and ventral tegmental area in adolescent rats.  

Injections of dextran-amines, Fluoro Gold, cholera toxin-B subunit and Fast Blue were delivered to the anterior and posterior accessory olfactory bulb, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsal anterior amygdala and bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract/anteroventral medial amygdaloid nucleus. We have demonstrated that, apart from common vomeronasal-recipient areas, only the anterior accessory olfactory bulb projects to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial division, posteromedial part, and only the posterior accessory olfactory bulb projects to the dorsal anterior amygdala and deep cell layers of the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract and the anteroventral medial amygdaloid nucleus.  

Exposure to male-soiled, but not clean, bedding produced a significant increase in c-Fos-immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in Tfm males and females, no increase was noted in males.  

The central nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis responded more to averted than directed-gaze faces.  

TIP39 and the PTH2R are abundant in medial prefrontal, insular, and ectorhinal cortices, the lateral septal nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the fundus striati, the amygdala, the ventral subiculum, the hypothalamus, midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, the medial geniculate body, the periaqueductal gray, the ventral tegmental area, the superior and inferior colliculi, the parabrachial nuclei, the locus coeruleus, subcoeruleus and periolivary areas, and the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

Our results showed that in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis activation of GABA-A receptors leads to increased numbers of nNOS, and pCREB as well as nNOS-pCREB doubly immunopositive cells only in the males while in the posterior hypothalamus this effect is observed in both sexes.  

Egr-1 expression differences in medial preoptic nucleus and c-Fos expression differences in bed nucleus of stria terminalis between genotype suggest possible sites where loss of gene alters behavioral output.  

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is a limbic structure involved in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as in central cardiovascular control.  

The majority of PRV-ir cells exhibited either AR or ER immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, median preoptic nucleus, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and zona incerta, areas known to play roles in male rat mating behavior.  

Numerous lines of evidence suggest that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is well positioned to relay limbic information to the PVN.  

The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) has been reported to be involved in central cardiovascular control in rat.  

The results indicated a significant increase of [ C]vorozole binding by anabolic androgenic steroids in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area. Our results suggest that aromatase is significantly upregulated in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area by anabolic androgenic steroids and also suggest that androgens regulate aromatase differently in these structures compared with the medial amygdala..  

Cocaine-induced c-fos mRNA was similar across ages in the dorsal caudate putamen (CPu), nucleus accumbens, and lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

Nicotine induced c-fos expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), nucleus accumbens, and the superior colliculus (SC) at both ages, whereas it activated the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and consequent corticosterone secretion only in adults.  

Fos-positive neurons were counted in a 0.3-mm(2) area from 5 regions previously shown to express T-induced Fos: the posteromedial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTPM), posteromedial amygdala (MeP), lateral habenula (LHb), ventral tegmental area, and lateral pontine nucleus.  

Expression of GAD67 mRNA in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) was minimally affected by acute restraint or maternal deprivation during the SHRP.  

Recently we showed that 24 h after copulation to satiety, there is a reduction in androgen receptor density (ARd) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), but not in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST).  

Sexual satiety was associated with an increased ERalpha density in the anteromedial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMA), ventrolateral septum (LSV), posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD), medial preoptic area (MPA) and nucleus accumbens core (NAc).  

Areas examined included the amygdala, periqueductal gray (PAG), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and dorsal medial hypothalamus (DMH).  

These included limbic areas such as the prelimbic cortex, parts of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsal hippocampus, dorsal lateral septum as well as hypothalamic and hindbrain areas (dorsolateral periaqueductal gray [ PAG], locus coeruleus).  

New findings indicate significant lithium-induced c-Fos in the gustatory region of the thalamus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis but not in the insular cortex.  

In Experiment 1, lesions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis had no influence on CTA or COA acquisition.  

However, naked mole-rats had very few VP-ir cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and none in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); the extensive network of fine-caliber VP-ir fibers usually seen in projection sites of the BST and SCN were also absent.  

Fluorogold was iontophoresed into the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBL; an important component of ascending viscerosensensory pathways) followed 2 weeks later by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1 mg/kg) or saline.  

The current study evaluated the role of the nucleus accumbens (NAC), bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), interstitial nucleus of posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC), and central amygdala (CeA) in the expression of antagonist-precipitated suppression of operant responding for food as a measure of withdrawal from acute opioid dependence. Thus, among the components of extended amygdala examined in this study, rapid neuroadaptation within the nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis appear to play the most prominent role in antagonist-precipitated suppression of operant responding during the early stages in the development of opioid dependence..  

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is a part of the limbic system.  

In contrast, Fos expression in stress-associated brain areas, including the ventral lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (VL-BNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CE), and noradrenergic (A2) neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) was significantly elevated only in morphine-abstinent animals.  

Less predictable stimuli, such as a long-duration bright light or a fearful context, activate the BLA, which projects to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), which projects to the startle pathway much as the CeA does.  

In a subdivision of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) ZENK labeling only related positively to non-breeding context song, whereas, in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) ZENK labeling showed a tighter positive relationship with breeding context song.  

We found increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh) gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the central amygdala, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

Using a conditioned place paradigm, we examined the involvement of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) in the negative affective component of visceral and somatic pain induced by intraperitoneal acetic acid and intraplantar formalin injections, respectively, in rats.  

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA) are anatomically connected sites necessary for chemosensory regulation of social behaviors in rodents.  

Brain microinjection studies have revealed that the positive-linked receptors are located in eight to nine brain regions spanning the neuraxis including the secondary motor cortex, piriform cortex, nucleus accumbens, preoptic area, lateral hypothalamic area, vermis cerebellum, locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe and possibly the C1 nucleus of the ventrolateral medulla, whereas the stress-linked receptors are present in at least three areas including the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, central nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

The primary results indicate: 1) increasing the dose of cisplatin increased the magnitude and duration of brain Fos expression, 2) most excitatory effects on hindbrain nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema (AP) Fos expression occurred within 24 h after cisplatin injection, 3) 6 and 10 mg/kg cisplatin treatment produced large increases in Fos expression in the central amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), including 48 h after injection, and 4) cisplatin treatment produced little effect on Fos expression in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus.  

LiCl did not increase Fos above control levels in the central nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), or paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus on P0 but did on P7 and later.  

To determine whether these effects require NA inputs to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), vehicle or saporin toxin conjugated to an antibody against dopamine beta hydroxylase (DSAP) was microinjected bilaterally into the BNST to remove its NA inputs.  

The present study was designed to explore the brain sites within the extended amygdala [ central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh)] that mediate the increased ethanol self-administration observed during withdrawal.  

Additional expression in thalamic nuclei, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and dorsal mesencephalon was found in transgenic lines with constructs 1.0 and 1.7, and expression in septal and preoptic nuclei was only found with construct 1.7.  

No staining was observed in the nucleus tuberalis lateralis and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

In the intra-amygdaloid part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (st) some lightly stained cells were seen but along the entire course of st strongly stained neurons were observed.  

The medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) influences both social approach and social aversion, suggesting that this structure may play an important role in generating motivational and behavioral differences between gregarious and asocial species.  


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