Area 10 Of Prefrontal Cortex

Of particular importance to the cognitive capacities that are uniquely human is the fronto-polar cortex (Brodmann's area 10), which is disproportionally larger in humans relative to the rest of the brain than it is in the ape's brain.  

Second, there were deficits observed in both patients and relatives (decreased activity in middle occipital gyrus, insula, cuneus, anterior cingulate, and Brodmann area 10 in prefrontal cortex), indicating a potential association with disease risk.  

Source localization analyses at the time of maximal N450 activity revealed that MDD subjects had significantly reduced dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC; Brodmann area 24/32) and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10/46) activation to incongruent relative to congruent trials.  

Using an automatized gray level index (GLI) method, we recently found cytoarchitectonic abnormalities in schizophrenia in Brodmann area 10 (BA10) [ Vogeley, K., Tepest, R., Schneider-Axmann, T., Hutte, H., Zilles, K., Honer, W.G., Falkai, P., 2003. Automated image analysis of disturbed cytoarchitecture in Brodmann area 10 in schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research 62, 133-140].  

However, on a new test of executive function (selection between stimulus-oriented and stimulus-independent thought), the ASD group exhibited significantly greater signal-change in medial rostral prefrontal cortex (especially Brodmann area 10) in the comparison of stimulus-oriented versus stimulus-independent attention.  

Expression of 31 genes was measured in Brodmann's area 10 (BA10) in the prefrontal cortex of 72 postmortem brain samples spanning half a century of human aging (18-67 years), each without history of neuropsychiatric illness, neurological disease, or drug abuse.  

RESULTS: Children with psychopathic traits showed abnormal responses within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10) during punished reversal errors compared with children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy children (P < .05 corrected for multiple comparisons).  

Group analysis found that various brain areas of patients with congenital scoliosis showed glucose hypometabolisms in the left prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), left anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 24) and pulvinar of the left thalamus.  

Numerical density of pericapillary oligodendrocytes was measured in layer V of Broadmann's area 10.  

RESULTS: Relative to comparison subjects, patients with MDD displayed significantly lower accuracy after incorrect responses, larger error-related negativity, and higher current density in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) (Brodmann area 10/32) 80 milliseconds after committing an error.  

Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders.  

Projection neurons in area 10 originated mostly in layers 2-3 and were intermingled with CB inhibitory neurons. Axons from area 10 targeted CB and PV inhibitory neurons, whereas axons from area 32 targeted PV inhibitory neurons. The preferential association of the 2 prefrontal pathways with distinct classes of inhibitory neurons at their origin and termination may reflect the specialization of area 10 in working memory functions and area 32 in emotional communication.  

The present study tested the hypothesis that functional cortico-muscular coupling is a putative physiological mechanism by which Brodmann area 10 (BA10) of anterior prefrontal cortex controls subjects' behavior.  

METHODS: In this postmortem study, mGlu3 protein levels in Brodmann area 10 of prefrontal cortex from schizophrenic (n = 20) and control (n = 35) subjects were analyzed by western immunoblotting using a novel specific mGlu3 antibody and an antibody for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGluT1).  

Electron microscopic morphometric study of postmortem prefrontal cortex (area 10) and visual cortex (area 17) was performed to estimate the numeric density (Nv) of synapses in layers I and II, neurons in layer II and the number of synapses per neuron in layer II in 20 cases of chronic schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls using stereological physical dissector method.  

We propose that rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC; approximating area 10) supports a cognitive system that facilitates either stimulus-oriented (SO) or stimulus-independent (SI) attending. Regions of medial area 10 support processes related to the former, whilst areas of lateral area 10 support processes that enable the latter. First, we demonstrate the predicted patterns of activation in area 10 during the performance of new tests designed to stress the hypothetical function. Second, we demonstrate area 10 activations during the performance of established functions (prospective memory, context memory), which should hypothetically involve the proposed attentional system. We then show that while the gateway hypothesis accommodates a large range of findings relating to the functional organization of area 10 along a medial-lateral dimension, there are further principles relating to other dimensions and functions. In particular, there is a functional dissociation between the anterior medial area 10, which supports processes required for SO attending, and the caudal medial area 10, which supports processes relating to mentalizing..  

We determined the total fatty acid composition of postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (Brodmann area 10) from drug-free and antipsychotic-treated SZ patients (n=21) and age-matched normal controls (n=26) by gas chromatography.  

Functional neuroimaging studies provide further evidence that the PFC is involved in processing event sequence knowledge, with the medial PFC (Brodmann area 10) primarily engaged in mediating predictable event sequences. The anterior medial area 10 was differentially activated for LF and the posterior medial area 10 for HF activities.  

Rostral prefrontal cortex (approximating Brodmann area 10) has been shown repeatedly to have a role in the maintenance and realization of delayed intentions that are triggered by event cues (i.e., event-based prospective memory).  

Prefrontal areas varied vastly in their connections with the amygdala, with the densest connections found in posterior orbitofrontal and posterior medial cortices, and the sparsest in anterior lateral prefrontal areas, especially area 10.  

In the first seconds of the delay, right sensorimotor cortex was active, whereas clusters in left anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) (Brodmann area 10) became dominant 2 s after the end of exploration, showing sustained activity for several seconds.  

One of the least well understood regions of the human brain is rostral prefrontal cortex, approximating Brodmann's area 10.  

This is consistent with the hypothesis that anterior prefrontal cortex (area 10) supports the biasing of attention between external events (e.g., identifying the cue amid distracting stimuli) and internal thought processes (i.e., maintaining the intention and remembering the intended actions).  

The rostromedial prefrontal (area 9) and frontopolar (area 10) regions have very few extrastriate projections.  

We analyzed the behavioral data from 104 neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging that reported activation peaks in rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), approximating Brodmann's area 10.  

Serum autoantibodies were measured by use of ELISA and Western immunoblotting against a variety of epitopes, including human postmortem caudate, putamen, and prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10).  

A functional dissociation was observed within anterior prefrontal cortex (principally Brodmann's area 10), with activation in lateral regions associated with remembering either type of information (relative to baseline), and a medial anterior PFC region showing significantly greater activation during the "task memory" conditions.  

In addition, the cocaine administration also induced activations in the hierarchical brain networks in the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) of the Brodmann area 10 (BA10) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC).  

The schizophrenia patients also showed increased activity in the anterior (Brodmann's area 10) and inferior prefrontal cortices (Brodmann's area 45/46) when they were maintaining context over a delay.  

However, the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC, Brodmann area 10) has been mainly associated with retrieval in episodic memory, and its role in working memory is less clear.  

Unexpected reward failure evoked activity in the temporal cortex and frontal pole (area 10).  

In the 'OFF' condition, compared with rest, motor activation of the most dystonic hand was associated with overactivity in the contralateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, gyrus frontalis medialis, superior frontal gyrus (area 10), frontoorbital cortex and thalamus.  

METHOD: Tissue from area 10 with a mean postmortem interval of 5.7 hours was obtained from 15 subjects with chronic schizophrenia and 18 normal comparison subjects.  

Using optical dissector methodology, a morphometric study of numerical density of oligodendroglial cells in layer VI and in adjacent white matter of Broadmann area 10 has been conducted in 23 postmortem brains of schizophrenics and 20 matched controls.  

These data add to those of one other study that showed the alpha(2)-adrenoreceptors were not altered in Brodmann's area 10 and the hippocampus from subjects with schizophrenia, and do not support the hypothesis that changes in alpha(2)-adrenoreceptors are a marker for treatment resistance in schizophrenia..  

Significantly changed levels of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), the key enzymes involved in glutamine-glutamate cycling between neurons and glia, have been found in the prefrontal cortex (area 10) of patients with schizophrenia compared to controls (P<.01).  

To detect cytoarchitectonic abnormalities in the Brodmann area 10 (BA10) of schizophrenic patients, we applied a newly modified variant of the gray-level index (GLI) method as fully automated image analysis method providing cytoarchitectonic profiles of the whole cortex as a scanning tool.  

In spite of the intersubject variability in the sets of active areas for each given task, a few cortical areas were observed to discriminate between tasks in a statistically significant way: the verbal task corresponded to stronger electrical activity in right area 45 than the other tasks; the spatial to weaker activity in right area 38 and left area 5 than the other tasks; the pictorial, compared to the spatial task, to stronger activity in left area 39; the verbal, compared to the spatial task, to stronger activity in left area 10, and compared to the pictorial, to weaker activity in right area 20.  

Within area 10, the region corresponding to area 10m in monkeys was divided into 10m and 10r, and area 10o (orbital) was renamed area 10p (polar).  

However more lateral aspects of area 10 (plus the medio-dorsal thalamus) showed the opposite pattern, with rCBF increases in the prospective memory conditions relative to the other conditions.  

RESULTS: A linear regression model, controlling for the effects of cognitive deficits, revealed a significant relationship between severity of delusional thought and the metabolic rates in three frontal regions: the right superior dorsolateral frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8), the right inferior frontal pole (Brodmann's area 10), and the right lateral orbitofrontal region (Brodmann's area 47).  

RESULTS: Mood provocation in both depressed groups resulted in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) decreases in medial orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann's area 10/11, which were absent in the healthy group.  

The calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin can be used as markers for specific subpopulations of cortical GABAergic interneurons.METHODS: Following our previous observation of a reduction in the density of parvalbumin- but not calretinin-immunoreactive cells in the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10) in schizophrenia, we have quantified the laminar density of neurons immunoreactive for the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin in a further prefrontal cortical region (Brodmann area 9) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and in matched control subjects (each group n = 15).RESULTS: Initial statistical analysis revealed reductions in the total cortical density of parvalbumin- and calbindin- but not calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in schizophrenia relative to control subjects.  

114:224-241) showed that Brodmann's area 10 is relatively larger in the human compared to pongid brains. The question is: how much larger relatively is it? Using their data, it can be shown that the relative increase for human prefrontal area 10 is only 6% larger.  

Neuropsychological impairment correlated most strongly with less current density in Brodmann area 10..  

Metabolic rates in Brodmann area 10 were distinctly higher in SPD patients than in either normal volunteers or schizophrenic patients..  

Neuroimaging studies have implicated the anterior-most or frontopolar regions of prefrontal cortex (FP-PFC, e.g., Brodmann's area 10) as playing a central role in higher cognitive functions such as planning, problem solving, reasoning, and episodic memory retrieval.  

Furthermore, the process of relational integration was specifically associated with bilateral rostrolateral PFC (RLPFC; lateral area 10) and right dorsolateral PFC (areas 9 and 46).  

Ultrastructural signs of apoptosis and necrosis of oligodendroglial cells were found in the prefrontal area 10 and the caudate nucleus in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.  

A qualitative and quantitative electron microscopic study of oligodendroglial cells was performed in autoptic (4-6.5 hours after death) prefrontal area 10 in 16 cases of schizophrenia, 6 cases of bipolar affective disorder and 16 normal controls, as well as in the caudate nucleus in same schizophrenic and control cases.  

Relative to the baseline condition, increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as estimated by oxygen-15 positron emission tomography technique across all four tasks were seen in the frontal pole (Brodmann's area 10) bilaterally, right lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions plus the precuneus when subjects were expecting a PM stimulus regardless of whether it actually occurred.  

area 10 is one of the cortical areas of the frontal lobe involved in higher cognitive functions such as the undertaking of initiatives and the planning of future actions. It is here documented that area 10 also forms the frontal pole of chimpanzee, bonobo, orangutan, and gibbon brains. area 10 has similar cytoarchitectonic features in the hominoid brain, but aspects of its organization vary slightly across species, including the relative width of its cortical layers and the space available for connections. The cortex forming the frontal pole of the gorilla appears highly specialized, while area 10 in the gibbon occupies only the orbital sector of the frontal pole. area 10 in the human brain is larger relative to the rest of the brain than it is in the apes, and its supragranular layers have more space available for connections with other higher-order association areas.  

Additional regions of differential activation included left anterior prefrontal cortex at or near Brodmann area 10, anterior insula, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal cortex along inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, and presupplementary motor area.  

area 10 and LGH showed an opposite pattern of functional connectivity with a large expanse of bilateral limbic cortices that was equivalent for all levels of retrieval as well as the baseline task.  

Injection of multiple tracers into physiologically mapped regions AL, ML and CL of the auditory belt cortex revealed that anterior belt cortex was reciprocally connected with the frontal pole (area 10), rostral principal sulcus (area 46) and ventral prefrontal regions (areas 12 and 45), whereas the caudal belt was mainly connected with the caudal principal sulcus (area 46) and frontal eye fields (area 8a).  

Resolving these "conflicting" decisions was associated with three distinct foci of regional cerebral blood flow increase within the right inferior and orbital PFC: laterally, in the anterior part of the middle frontal gyrus [ Brodmann area 10 (BA 10)], medially, in the orbital gyrus (BA 11), and posteriorly, in the anterior portion of the inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47).  

Two different effects were observed: a reduced activity in posterior regions within the common network, which correlated with specific increases in the frontopolar area 10 and in the angular gyrus during the perception of learned meaningless actions compared with the perception of unknown actions.  

Between-group comparisons (P < 0.01) of vibration-induced rCBF changes between patients and controls revealed differences in central sensory processing: (i) in Parkinson's disease, decreased activation of contralateral sensorimotor (S1/M1) and lateral premotor cortex, contralateral S2, contralateral posterior cingulate, bilateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10) and contralateral basal ganglia; (ii) in Huntington's disease, decreased activation of contralateral S2, parietal areas 39 and 40, and lingual gyrus, bilateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 10 and 44), S1 (trend only) and contralateral basal ganglia; (iii) in both clinical conditions relative enhanced activation of ipsilateral sensory cortical areas, notably caudal S1, S2 and insular cortex.  

The binding of [ 125I]p-iodoclonidine to alpha-2, and/or [ 125I]iodopindolol to beta-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptors was measured in right prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10) and right hippocampus from subjects with DSM-III-R diagnoses of major depression (n = 15) or schizophrenia (n = 8) as well as from control subjects (n = 20).  

We used Western immunoblot and Northern hybridization analyses of postmortem brain tissue obtained from 14 schizophrenic patients and 12 control patients of similar ages to measure tissue levels of synaptophysin (a structural synaptic vesicle protein) and of SNAP-25 (a 25-kDa presynaptic protein), and their encoding mRNAs, in Brodmann's area 10 of prefrontal cortex.  

Partial least-squares analysis of the interregional correlations (functional connectivity) between the occipital area and the rest of the brain identified a pattern of covariation with four dominant brain areas that could have mediated this activation: prefrontal cortex (near Brodmann area 10, A10), premotor cortex (A6), superior temporal cortex (A41/42), and contralateral occipital cortex (A18).  

Behavioral scores were significantly correlated with rCMRGlu in the frontopolar (Brodmann's area 10) and orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's areas 11, 12, 13, and 14).  

Although there were no significant differences between suicide victims with major depression and psychiatrically normal control subjects in serotonin-1A or serotonin-2A receptors in the right prefrontal cortex (area 10) or the hippocampus, there were region-specific alterations in suicide victims with major depression in G-protein-induced activation of the phosphoinositide signal transduction system and in the levels of G-protein alpha subunits involved in cyclic AMP synthesis.  

Patients showed this relationship only for area 10 on the left.  

The results for comparison '1' indicated activity in the contralateral prefrontal (area 10/46/44), bilateral inferior parietal (area 40) and ipsilateral premotor cortices (area 6), possibly reflecting initial orientation and plans for movement.  

The present study examined regional differences and age-related changes in the basilar dendrites/spines of supragranular pyramidal cells in human prefrontal (area 10) and secondary occipital (area 18) cortices. Despite considerable interindividual variation, several clear findings emerged: 1) Dendritic systems were significantly larger in area 10 than in area 18 across the sampled life span, presumably because of the more integrative function of area 10 neurons.  

To examine the role of benzodiazepine (BZ) receptors in suicide and schizophrenia, we determined BZ receptors in post-mortem brain (Brodmann's area 10) obtained from suicide victims, schizophrenic patients, and control subjects using [ 3H]RO15-1788 as the radioligand.  

Polar area 10 receives input from both MDpc and the densocellular division of the medial dorsal nucleus (MDdc), as does supracallosal area 24.  

Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used in serial sections of the right prefrontal cortex (area 10) and hippocampus to measure the binding of [ 3H]8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propyl)-aminotetralin ([ 3H]8-OH-DPAT) to 5-HT1A receptors and [ 3H]ketanserin to 5-HT2A receptors. There were no significant differences between suicide victims with major depression and comparison subjects in 5-HT1A or 5-HT2A receptors in area 10 of the right prefrontal cortex or the hippocampus. The current results suggest that the number of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the right prefrontal cortex (area 10) or hippocampus are not different in suicide victims with major depression..  

This method has been applied to the anterior cingulate (ACCx; Brodmann area 24) and prefrontal (PFCx: Brodmann area 10) cortices from a cohort of 15 normal control and 10 schizophrenic cases.  

In patients with IBS, the ACC failed to respond to the same stimuli, whereas significant activation (P < 0.01) of the left prefrontal cortex (maximal in Brodmann's area 10) was seen.  

A high-resolution autoradiographic analysis of bicuculline-sensitive [ 3H]muscimol (GABAA) receptor binding on individual neuron cell bodies in layers II, III, IV and VI has been applied to Brodmann area 10 from normal controls (n = 16) and schizophrenic (n = 7) subjects.  

in some postmortem brain structures of the dopaminergic system: the substantia nigra, ventral tegmentum area, prefrontal cortex (area 10), anterior cingulate cortex (area 24), the head of the caudate nucleus in schizophrenia and age-matched controls without mental disorders.  

Cortical pyramidal neurons (lamina V, area 10) were investigated in brain autopsy material obtained from 8 patients with serious bodily and mental retardation, aged between 3 and 24 years. The results were compared with related data found in the prefrontal cortex (area 10 according to Brodmann) of patients in the same age without neuropathological or psychiatric disturbances.  

The profile of cortical and subcortical activation during performance of freely selected joystick movements relative to stereotyped movements was abnormal in ALS patients: (i) ALS patients with a normal fluency score showed significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated rCBF responses in comparison with controls in the left medial prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10) and the right and left parahippocampal gyri; (ii) ALS patients with impaired verbal fluency showed significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated rCBF responses in comparison with controls in the right and left medial prefrontal cortex (areas 9 and 10), the rostral aspects of the right anterior cingulate cortex (areas 24 and 32), the right parahippocampal gyrus and the anterior thalamic nuclear complex; (iii) ALS patients with impaired verbal fluency showed significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated rCBF responses in comparison with patients with normal verbal fluency in the right parahippocampal gyrus, the anterior thalamic nuclear complex and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (area 24).  

In comparison with the normal controls, the group with 'unclassified' mental retardation showed an increased percentage of disoriented pyramidal neurons in layers III and IV-V (8-17%, P < 0.01), an abnormal distribution of small pyramidal cells with a shift from superficial to deeper layers of the prefrontal cortex (P < 0.01), and an increased cortical thickness (+38%, P < 0.05) of Brodmann area 10, as well as a tendency to a decreased gyration of the frontal lobe sulci (-14%, P = 0.18).  

When a comparison of the rCBF response to the free selection task with that to the stereotyped task was performed between the two groups of subjects, ALS patients showed significantly impaired (P < 0.01) activation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (area 32), medial prefrontal cortex (area 10), left parahippocampal gyrus and retrosplenial cortex.  

Under Na+-K+ phosphate buffer conditions, [ 125I]HEAT bound to a single class of binding sites in prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10) with a Kd of about 120 pM.  

The next stage of architectonic regions includes orbital areas 12, 11, and 14, which is followed by area 10, lateral area 12, and the rostral part of ventral area 46.  

Whereas no differences in the content of kynurenic acid were observed in the caudate nucleus, lateral or medial globus pallidus, or prefrontal cortex (area 10) between controls' brains and those from patients who died with Huntington's disease, there was a 94% (p less than 0.01; n = 5) increase in the kynurenic acid content in the motor cortex (area 4) from Huntington's disease brains, relative to those of controls.  

Area 8A was labeled most prominently when injections included the multiform portion of MD (MDmf) and area 10 had connections with anterior portions of MD.  

Neurons in area 10 responded variously during most phases of the task--food discrimination, bar pressing, and ingestion.  

Lesions in orbital cortex (on the dorsal lip of the rhinal sulcus) or prefrontal cortex (area 10) significantly retarded the rate of amygdaloid kindling; lesions in motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, or visual cortex were without effect.  

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